Background: Cancer patients demonstrate increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), VTE recurrence, and anticoagulation-associated bleeding. Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT) aand thrombectomy improves venous patency, venous valve function, and quality of life in patients with acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT). It remains unknown whether pharmacomechanical thrombolysis can be used safely in patients with active cancer. We hypothesized that perioperative and short-term outcomes of pharmacomechanical iliofemoral DVT thrombolysis would not differ between patients with cancer and those without cancer. Methods: A retrospective chart review of consecutive patients with symptomatic iliofemoral DVT undergoing PMT by AngioJet Power Pulse spray and thrombectomy at a single tertiary care university institution between December 2013 and December 2016 was performed. Outcomes between patients with cancer and without cancer were compared. Results: We identified 22 limbs in 18 consecutive patients: 6 patients (7 limbs) with cancer and 12 patients (15 limbs) without cancer. Between these groups, the mean age was 60.5 ± 4.3 vs. 53.8 ± 26.8 years, respectively (P = 0.5593), and females comprised 66.7% vs. 25.0%, respectively (P = 0.0878). No significant difference in inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement between the groups (57.1% vs. 53.3%, P = 0.8676) was noted. Grade II (50–94% lysis) and III (95% complete lysis) thrombus lysis with restoration of venous patency was achieved in both the groups. Overnight catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) was rarely used. Notably, stenting was more frequently employed in cancer patients than in those without cancer (57.1% vs. 13.3%, P = 0.0316). The mean duration of follow-up was 3.42 ± 4.41 months for the cancer group and 4.50 ± 2.43 months for the noncancer group (P = 0.5060). Overall outcomes were excellent as no patient in both the groups experienced recurrent DVT, major bleeding, or postthrombotic syndrome. There was no mortality associated with the endovascular thrombolysis procedures. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that the presence of malignancy does not affect short-term outcomes of endovascular thrombolytic therapy in symptomatic DVT. Further follow-up is needed to evaluate long-term outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine