Purpose: To determine how best to time respiratory surrogate-based tumor motion model updates by comparing a novel technique based on external measurements alone to three direct measurement methods. Methods: Concurrently measured tumor and respiratory surrogate positions from 166 treatment fractions for lung or pancreas lesions were analyzed. Partial-least-squares regression models of tumor position from marker motion were created from the first six measurements in each dataset. Successive tumor localizations were obtained at a rate of once per minute on average. Model updates were timed according to four methods: never, respiratory surrogate-based (when metrics based on respiratory surrogate measurements exceeded confidence limits), error-based (when localization error ≥3 mm), and always (approximately once per minute). Results: Radial tumor displacement prediction errors (mean ± standard deviation) for the four schema described above were 2.4 ± 1.2, 1.9 ± 0.9, 1.9 ± 0.8, and 1.7 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. The never-update error was significantly larger than errors of the other methods. Mean update counts over 20 min were 0, 4, 9, and 24, respectively. Conclusions: The same improvement in tumor localization accuracy could be achieved through any of the three update methods, but significantly fewer updates were required when the respiratory surrogate method was utilized. This study establishes the feasibility of timing image acquisitions for updating respiratory surrogate models without direct tumor localization.
- real-time motion compensation
- respiratory motion
- respiratory surrogates
- statistical process control
- tumor-localization accuracy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging