In human and non-human primates, migratory trophoblasts penetrate the uterine epithelium, invade the endometrium, enter the uterine vasculature, and migrate within the arteries. The mechanisms that regulate this directional migration are unknown. We have used early gestation macaque trophoblasts to test the hypothesis that trophoblast migration is regulated by the chemokine, Regulated on Activation T-Cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES). Immunohistochemical analysis of cryosections of endometrial tissue showed expression of RANTES by stromal cells and vascular cells. Isolated endothelial cells expressed RANTES as determined by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analyses. Immunohistochemical analysis of endometrial cryosections showed that the RANTES receptor, CCR5, was expressed by trophoblasts on anchoring villi and by cells within the trophoblastic shell. Cytokeratin-positive/CCR5-positive cells, consistent with trophoblasts, were also found scattered within the stroma and were often clustered around blood vessels. Isolated trophoblast cells expressed CCR5 as determined by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analyses. Isolated trophoblasts migrated towards RANTES when cultured in migration chambers and migration was reduced in the presence of anti-CCR5 antibody. When trophoblasts were cultured on dishes coated with recombinant RANTES, expression of β1 integrin was increased. The RANTES-induced increase in β1 integrin expression was inhibited by pertussis toxin. These data suggest a role for RANTES and CCR5 in the regulation of trophoblast migration within the endometrium and within the uterine vasculature.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology