Longitudinal organization of the anterior neural plate and neural tube

Kenji Shimamura, Dennis J. Hartigan, Salvador Martinez, Luis Puelles, John L R Rubenstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

561 Scopus citations


Over the last century, several morphological models of forebrain organization have been proposed that hypothesize alternative topological solutions for the relationships of the histogenic primordia. Central to all of these models are their definitions of the longitudinal axis and the longitudinal organization of the neural plate and neural tube. To understand the longitudinal organization of the anterior brain, we have sought to identify molecular properties that are continuous along the entire longitudinal axis of the embryonic CNS. In this essay, we describe studies of the expression of several genes in the mouse between 7.5 (presomite stage) and 10.5 days post coitum (dpc) that provide evidence for the trajectory of the anterior-posterior axis and the longitudinal organization of the anterior CNS. Specifically, we report that the expression of noggin, sonic hedgehog and Nkx-2.2 define longitudinal columns of cells that are present along the entire CNS axis. Within the forebrain, the expression of these genes, as well as that of Nkx-2.1 and BF-1, are in distinct longitudinal regions in the neural plate and tube. We demonstrate that the earliest longitudinal axon pathways of the forebrain are spatially correlated with the longitudinal domain defined by Nkx-2.2. Finally, expression of the former genes, and Otx-1 and Emx-2, suggests that the cephalic neural plate is organized into molecularly distinct domains delimited by longitudinal and transverse borders; these results provide a foundation for defining the mechanisms that pattern the neural plate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3923-3933
Number of pages11
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1995


  • Axis
  • Brain development
  • Forebrain
  • Hedgehog
  • Homeobox genes
  • Pattern formation
  • Prosencephalon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Cell Biology


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