Longitudinal evaluation of T and T2 spatial distribution in osteoarthritic and healthy medial knee cartilage

J. Schooler, D. Kumar, Lorenzo Nardo, C. McCulloch, X. Li, T. M. Link, S. Majumdar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Objective: To investigate longitudinal changes in laminar and spatial distribution of knee articular cartilage magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T and T2 relaxation times, in individuals with and without medial compartment cartilage defects. Design: All subjects (at baseline n=88, >18 years old) underwent 3-Tesla knee MRI at baseline and annually thereafter for 3 years. The MR studies were evaluated for presence of cartilage defects (modified Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring - mWORMS), and quantitative T and T2 relaxation time maps. Subjects were segregated into those with (mWORMS ≥2) and without (mWORMS ≤1) cartilage lesions at the medial tibia (MT) or medial femur (MF) at each time point. Laminar (bone and articular layer) and spatial (gray level co-occurrence matrix - GLCM) distribution of the T and T2 relaxation time maps were calculated. Linear regression models (cross-sectional) and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs) (longitudinal) were used. Results: Global T, global T2 and articular layer T2 relaxation times at the MF, and global and articular layer T2 relaxation times at the MT, were higher in subjects with cartilage lesions compared to those without lesions. At the MT global T relaxation times were higher at each time point in subjects with lesions. MT T and T2 became progressively more heterogeneous than control compartments over the course of the study. Conclusion: Spatial distribution of T and T2 relaxation time maps in medial knee OA using GLCM technique may be a sensitive indicator of cartilage deterioration, in addition to whole-compartment relaxation time data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-62
Number of pages12
JournalOsteoarthritis and Cartilage
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Cartilage defects
  • GLCM
  • Laminar
  • Quantitative MRI
  • Texture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering


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