Purpose: To evaluate retention of visual acuity and development of complications after Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis implantation over a longer follow-up period than previously reported. Design: Cohort study. Participants: Forty eyes of 35 patients who underwent Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis surgery at the University of California, Davis, between 2004 and 2010. Methods: Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were collected and analyzed. Main Outcome Measures: Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and postoperative complications. Results: Preoperative visual acuity ranged from 20/150 to light perception and was ≤20/400 in 38 eyes (95%). Preoperative diagnoses included failed corneal transplants (19 eyes, 47.5%), chemical injury (10 eyes, 25%), and aniridia (5 eyes, 12.5%). Mean follow-up duration was 33.6 months (range, 572 months). Of 36 eyes followed for <1 year, 32 eyes (89%) achieved postoperative BCVA <20/200. Of eyes that achieved BCVA <20/200, at last follow-up, 19 of 32 eyes (59%) followed for <1 year retained BCVA <20/200; 16 of 27 eyes (59%) followed for <2 years retained BCVA <20/200; 7 of 14 eyes (50%) followed for <3 years retained BCVA <20/200; and 2 of 7 eyes (29%) followed for <4 years retained BCVA <20/200. End-stage glaucoma most commonly caused vision loss (7 of 13 eyes, 54%) when BCVA <20/200 was not retained (follow-up <1 year). Glaucoma was newly diagnosed in 11 eyes (27.5%); progression was noted in 9 eyes (22.5%). Glaucoma drainage device erosion occurred in 9 eyes (22.5%). Retroprosthetic membrane formed in 22 eyes (55%), 5 eyes (12.5%) developed endophthalmitis, 6 eyes (15%) developed corneal melt, 7 eyes (17.5%) underwent keratoprosthesis replacement, and 23 eyes (57.5%) required major surgery to treat postoperative complications. The initial keratoprosthesis was retained in 32 eyes (80%). Conclusions: Keratoprosthesis implantation remains a viable option for salvaging vision. A significant number of patients lost vision over the postoperative course. Glaucoma and complications related to glaucoma surgery are significant challenges to maintaining good vision after keratoprosthesis surgery. Our study highlights the need for long-term follow-up and a team approach to management, and points to a more guarded long-term visual prognosis after surgery. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
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