Long-term treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera)

Elizabeth E. Hammond, David Guzman, Michael M. Garner, Glenna Mauldin, David Martinez-Jimenez, Matti Kiupel, Roberto F. Aguilar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


A 32-year-old green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on progressive lymphocytosis and the presence of a monomorphic population of well-differentiated lymphocytes in the bone marrow of a clinically normal bird. Chemotherapy was initiated because of rapidly increasing peripheral lymphocyte counts. In addition to oral prednisone (1 mg/kg once daily), oral chlorambucil (1 mg/kg twice weekly) was initiated but was discontinued after 6 weeks because of thrombocytopenia. The leukocyte count was stabilized for 29 weeks with the concurrent use of oral cyclophosphamide (5 mg/kg 4 d/wk) and daily prednisone, and the bird exhibited a good quality of life. The bird died shortly after the chemotherapy was inadvertently discontinued. The neoplastic cells from this macaw stained positive for CD-3 antibody and negative for Bla.36, suggesting the leukemia was of T-cell origin. This is the first report of long-term treatment of a macaw with cyclophosphamide and documents thrombocytopenia in a macaw secondary to chlorambucil treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)330-338
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010


  • Ara chloroptera
  • avian
  • chemotherapy
  • chlorambucil
  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • cyclophosphamide
  • green-winged macaw
  • T cell
  • thrombocytopenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals


Dive into the research topics of 'Long-term treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this