Long-term treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera)

Elizabeth E. Hammond, David Guzman, Michael M. Garner, Glenna Mauldin, David Martinez-Jimenez, Matti Kiupel, Roberto F. Aguilar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

A 32-year-old green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on progressive lymphocytosis and the presence of a monomorphic population of well-differentiated lymphocytes in the bone marrow of a clinically normal bird. Chemotherapy was initiated because of rapidly increasing peripheral lymphocyte counts. In addition to oral prednisone (1 mg/kg once daily), oral chlorambucil (1 mg/kg twice weekly) was initiated but was discontinued after 6 weeks because of thrombocytopenia. The leukocyte count was stabilized for 29 weeks with the concurrent use of oral cyclophosphamide (5 mg/kg 4 d/wk) and daily prednisone, and the bird exhibited a good quality of life. The bird died shortly after the chemotherapy was inadvertently discontinued. The neoplastic cells from this macaw stained positive for CD-3 antibody and negative for Bla.36, suggesting the leukemia was of T-cell origin. This is the first report of long-term treatment of a macaw with cyclophosphamide and documents thrombocytopenia in a macaw secondary to chlorambucil treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)330-338
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Volume24
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010

Keywords

  • Ara chloroptera
  • avian
  • chemotherapy
  • chlorambucil
  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • cyclophosphamide
  • green-winged macaw
  • T cell
  • thrombocytopenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals

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  • Cite this

    Hammond, E. E., Guzman, D., Garner, M. M., Mauldin, G., Martinez-Jimenez, D., Kiupel, M., & Aguilar, R. F. (2010). Long-term treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 24(4), 330-338. https://doi.org/10.1647/2009-001.1