Long-term treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera)

Elizabeth E. Hammond, David Guzman, Michael M. Garner, Glenna Mauldin, David Martinez-Jimenez, Matti Kiupel, Roberto F. Aguilar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A 32-year-old green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on progressive lymphocytosis and the presence of a monomorphic population of well-differentiated lymphocytes in the bone marrow of a clinically normal bird. Chemotherapy was initiated because of rapidly increasing peripheral lymphocyte counts. In addition to oral prednisone (1 mg/kg once daily), oral chlorambucil (1 mg/kg twice weekly) was initiated but was discontinued after 6 weeks because of thrombocytopenia. The leukocyte count was stabilized for 29 weeks with the concurrent use of oral cyclophosphamide (5 mg/kg 4 d/wk) and daily prednisone, and the bird exhibited a good quality of life. The bird died shortly after the chemotherapy was inadvertently discontinued. The neoplastic cells from this macaw stained positive for CD-3 antibody and negative for Bla.36, suggesting the leukemia was of T-cell origin. This is the first report of long-term treatment of a macaw with cyclophosphamide and documents thrombocytopenia in a macaw secondary to chlorambucil treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)330-338
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Volume24
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010

Fingerprint

lymphocytic leukemia
B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Birds
Chlorambucil
prednisone
mouth
cyclophosphamide
thrombocytopenia
Prednisone
Thrombocytopenia
Cyclophosphamide
drug therapy
birds
T-Cell Leukemia
Drug Therapy
Lymphocytosis
lymphocyte count
Lymphocyte Count
leukemia
quality of life

Keywords

  • Ara chloroptera
  • avian
  • chemotherapy
  • chlorambucil
  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • cyclophosphamide
  • green-winged macaw
  • T cell
  • thrombocytopenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals

Cite this

Hammond, E. E., Guzman, D., Garner, M. M., Mauldin, G., Martinez-Jimenez, D., Kiupel, M., & Aguilar, R. F. (2010). Long-term treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 24(4), 330-338. https://doi.org/10.1647/2009-001.1

Long-term treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera). / Hammond, Elizabeth E.; Guzman, David; Garner, Michael M.; Mauldin, Glenna; Martinez-Jimenez, David; Kiupel, Matti; Aguilar, Roberto F.

In: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, Vol. 24, No. 4, 01.12.2010, p. 330-338.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hammond, EE, Guzman, D, Garner, MM, Mauldin, G, Martinez-Jimenez, D, Kiupel, M & Aguilar, RF 2010, 'Long-term treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera)', Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 330-338. https://doi.org/10.1647/2009-001.1
Hammond, Elizabeth E. ; Guzman, David ; Garner, Michael M. ; Mauldin, Glenna ; Martinez-Jimenez, David ; Kiupel, Matti ; Aguilar, Roberto F. / Long-term treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera). In: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 2010 ; Vol. 24, No. 4. pp. 330-338.
@article{a6f71642cffe4b82a55468ec0dc29430,
title = "Long-term treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera)",
abstract = "A 32-year-old green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on progressive lymphocytosis and the presence of a monomorphic population of well-differentiated lymphocytes in the bone marrow of a clinically normal bird. Chemotherapy was initiated because of rapidly increasing peripheral lymphocyte counts. In addition to oral prednisone (1 mg/kg once daily), oral chlorambucil (1 mg/kg twice weekly) was initiated but was discontinued after 6 weeks because of thrombocytopenia. The leukocyte count was stabilized for 29 weeks with the concurrent use of oral cyclophosphamide (5 mg/kg 4 d/wk) and daily prednisone, and the bird exhibited a good quality of life. The bird died shortly after the chemotherapy was inadvertently discontinued. The neoplastic cells from this macaw stained positive for CD-3 antibody and negative for Bla.36, suggesting the leukemia was of T-cell origin. This is the first report of long-term treatment of a macaw with cyclophosphamide and documents thrombocytopenia in a macaw secondary to chlorambucil treatment.",
keywords = "Ara chloroptera, avian, chemotherapy, chlorambucil, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, cyclophosphamide, green-winged macaw, T cell, thrombocytopenia",
author = "Hammond, {Elizabeth E.} and David Guzman and Garner, {Michael M.} and Glenna Mauldin and David Martinez-Jimenez and Matti Kiupel and Aguilar, {Roberto F.}",
year = "2010",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1647/2009-001.1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "24",
pages = "330--338",
journal = "Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery",
issn = "1082-6742",
publisher = "Association of Avian Veterinarians",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Long-term treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera)

AU - Hammond, Elizabeth E.

AU - Guzman, David

AU - Garner, Michael M.

AU - Mauldin, Glenna

AU - Martinez-Jimenez, David

AU - Kiupel, Matti

AU - Aguilar, Roberto F.

PY - 2010/12/1

Y1 - 2010/12/1

N2 - A 32-year-old green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on progressive lymphocytosis and the presence of a monomorphic population of well-differentiated lymphocytes in the bone marrow of a clinically normal bird. Chemotherapy was initiated because of rapidly increasing peripheral lymphocyte counts. In addition to oral prednisone (1 mg/kg once daily), oral chlorambucil (1 mg/kg twice weekly) was initiated but was discontinued after 6 weeks because of thrombocytopenia. The leukocyte count was stabilized for 29 weeks with the concurrent use of oral cyclophosphamide (5 mg/kg 4 d/wk) and daily prednisone, and the bird exhibited a good quality of life. The bird died shortly after the chemotherapy was inadvertently discontinued. The neoplastic cells from this macaw stained positive for CD-3 antibody and negative for Bla.36, suggesting the leukemia was of T-cell origin. This is the first report of long-term treatment of a macaw with cyclophosphamide and documents thrombocytopenia in a macaw secondary to chlorambucil treatment.

AB - A 32-year-old green-winged macaw (Ara chloroptera) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on progressive lymphocytosis and the presence of a monomorphic population of well-differentiated lymphocytes in the bone marrow of a clinically normal bird. Chemotherapy was initiated because of rapidly increasing peripheral lymphocyte counts. In addition to oral prednisone (1 mg/kg once daily), oral chlorambucil (1 mg/kg twice weekly) was initiated but was discontinued after 6 weeks because of thrombocytopenia. The leukocyte count was stabilized for 29 weeks with the concurrent use of oral cyclophosphamide (5 mg/kg 4 d/wk) and daily prednisone, and the bird exhibited a good quality of life. The bird died shortly after the chemotherapy was inadvertently discontinued. The neoplastic cells from this macaw stained positive for CD-3 antibody and negative for Bla.36, suggesting the leukemia was of T-cell origin. This is the first report of long-term treatment of a macaw with cyclophosphamide and documents thrombocytopenia in a macaw secondary to chlorambucil treatment.

KW - Ara chloroptera

KW - avian

KW - chemotherapy

KW - chlorambucil

KW - chronic lymphocytic leukemia

KW - cyclophosphamide

KW - green-winged macaw

KW - T cell

KW - thrombocytopenia

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78650916347&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78650916347&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1647/2009-001.1

DO - 10.1647/2009-001.1

M3 - Article

C2 - 21302764

AN - SCOPUS:78650916347

VL - 24

SP - 330

EP - 338

JO - Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery

JF - Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery

SN - 1082-6742

IS - 4

ER -