Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads and Measures of Brain Structure

Elissa H. Wilker, Sarah R. Preis, Alexa S. Beiser, Philip A. Wolf, Rhoda Au, Itai Kloog, Wenyuan Li, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis, Charles DeCarli, Sudha Seshadri, Murray A. Mittleman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and Purpose - Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment, but whether it is related to structural changes in the brain is not clear. We examined the associations between residential long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and markers of brain aging using magnetic resonance imaging. Methods - Framingham Offspring Study participants who attended the seventh examination were at least 60 years old and free of dementia and stroke were included. We evaluated associations between exposures (fine particulate matter [PM 2.5 ] and residential proximity to major roadways) and measures of total cerebral brain volume, hippocampal volume, white matter hyperintensity volume (log-transformed and extensive white matter hyperintensity volume for age), and covert brain infarcts. Models were adjusted for age, clinical covariates, indicators of socioeconomic position, and temporal trends. Results - A 2-μg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 was associated with -0.32% (95% confidence interval, -0.59 to -0.05) smaller total cerebral brain volume and 1.46 (95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.94) higher odds of covert brain infarcts. Living further away from a major roadway was associated with 0.10 (95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.19) greater log-transformed white matter hyperintensity volume for an interquartile range difference in distance, but no clear pattern of association was observed for extensive white matter. Conclusions - Exposure to elevated levels of PM 2.5 was associated with smaller total cerebral brain volume, a marker of age-associated brain atrophy, and with higher odds of covert brain infarcts. These findings suggest that air pollution is associated with insidious effects on structural brain aging even in dementia- and stroke-free persons.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1161-1166
Number of pages6
JournalStroke
Volume46
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 20 2015

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Particulate Matter
Brain
Air Pollution
Confidence Intervals
Dementia
Stroke
Cerebrovascular Disorders
varespladib methyl
Atrophy
Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Keywords

  • air pollution
  • brain infarcts
  • neuroimaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing

Cite this

Wilker, E. H., Preis, S. R., Beiser, A. S., Wolf, P. A., Au, R., Kloog, I., ... Mittleman, M. A. (2015). Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads and Measures of Brain Structure. Stroke, 46(5), 1161-1166. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.008348

Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads and Measures of Brain Structure. / Wilker, Elissa H.; Preis, Sarah R.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda; Kloog, Itai; Li, Wenyuan; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros; DeCarli, Charles; Seshadri, Sudha; Mittleman, Murray A.

In: Stroke, Vol. 46, No. 5, 20.05.2015, p. 1161-1166.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wilker, EH, Preis, SR, Beiser, AS, Wolf, PA, Au, R, Kloog, I, Li, W, Schwartz, J, Koutrakis, P, DeCarli, C, Seshadri, S & Mittleman, MA 2015, 'Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads and Measures of Brain Structure', Stroke, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1161-1166. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.008348
Wilker, Elissa H. ; Preis, Sarah R. ; Beiser, Alexa S. ; Wolf, Philip A. ; Au, Rhoda ; Kloog, Itai ; Li, Wenyuan ; Schwartz, Joel ; Koutrakis, Petros ; DeCarli, Charles ; Seshadri, Sudha ; Mittleman, Murray A. / Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads and Measures of Brain Structure. In: Stroke. 2015 ; Vol. 46, No. 5. pp. 1161-1166.
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abstract = "Background and Purpose - Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment, but whether it is related to structural changes in the brain is not clear. We examined the associations between residential long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and markers of brain aging using magnetic resonance imaging. Methods - Framingham Offspring Study participants who attended the seventh examination were at least 60 years old and free of dementia and stroke were included. We evaluated associations between exposures (fine particulate matter [PM 2.5 ] and residential proximity to major roadways) and measures of total cerebral brain volume, hippocampal volume, white matter hyperintensity volume (log-transformed and extensive white matter hyperintensity volume for age), and covert brain infarcts. Models were adjusted for age, clinical covariates, indicators of socioeconomic position, and temporal trends. Results - A 2-μg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 was associated with -0.32{\%} (95{\%} confidence interval, -0.59 to -0.05) smaller total cerebral brain volume and 1.46 (95{\%} confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.94) higher odds of covert brain infarcts. Living further away from a major roadway was associated with 0.10 (95{\%} confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.19) greater log-transformed white matter hyperintensity volume for an interquartile range difference in distance, but no clear pattern of association was observed for extensive white matter. Conclusions - Exposure to elevated levels of PM 2.5 was associated with smaller total cerebral brain volume, a marker of age-associated brain atrophy, and with higher odds of covert brain infarcts. These findings suggest that air pollution is associated with insidious effects on structural brain aging even in dementia- and stroke-free persons.",
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AU - Au, Rhoda

AU - Kloog, Itai

AU - Li, Wenyuan

AU - Schwartz, Joel

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