Long-term evaluation of bone formation by osteogenic protein 1 in the baboon and relative efficacy of bone-derived bone morphogenetic proteins delivered by irradiated xenogeneic collagenous matrices

U. Ripamonti, B. Van Den Heever, J. Crooks, M. M. Tucker, T. K. Sampath, D. C. Rueger, A Hari Reddi

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67 Scopus citations


To investigate the long-term efficacy of irradiated recombinant human osteogenic protein 1 (hOP-1) in bone regeneration and morphogenesis, hOP-1 was combined with a bovine collagenous matrix carrier (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 mg hOP-1/g of matrix), sterilized with 2.5 Mrads of γ-irradiation, and implanted in 80 calvarial defects in 20 adult baboons (Papio ursinus). The relative efficacy of partially purified bone-derived baboon bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), known to contain several osteogenic proteins, was compared with the recombinant hOP-1 device in an additional four baboons. Histology and histomorphometry on serial undecalcified sections prepared from the specimens harvested on day 90 and day 365 showed that γ-irradiated hOP-1 devices induced regeneration of the calvarial defects by day 90, although with reduced bone area compared with a previous published series of calvarial defects treated with nonirradiated hOP-1 devices. One year after application of the irradiated hOP-1 devices, bone and osteoid volumes and generated bone tissue areas were comparable with nonirradiated hOP-1 specimens. Moreover, 365 days after healing regenerates induced by 0.5 mg and 2.5 mg of irradiated hOP-1 devices showed greater amounts of bone and osteoid volumes when compared with those induced by nonirradiated hOP-1 devices. On day 90, defects treated with 0.1 mg and 0.5 mg of bone-derived baboon BMPs, combined with irradiated matrix, showed significantly less bone compared with defects receiving irradiated devices containing 0.1 mg and 0.5 mg hOP-1; 2.5 mg of partially purified BMPs induced bone and osteoid volumes comparable with the 0.1-mg and 0.5-mg hOP-1 devices. Control specimens of γ-irradiated collagenous matrix without hOP-1 displayed a nearly 2-fold reduction in osteoconductive bone repair when compared with nonirradiated controls. These findings suggest that the reduction in bone volume and bone tissue area on day 90 may be caused by a reduced performance of the irradiated collagenous matrix substratum rather than to a reduction in the biological activity of the irradiated recombinant osteogenic protein. This is supported by the results of in vitro and in vivo studies performed to determine the structural integrity of the recovered γ-irradiated hOP-1 before application in the baboon. Recoveries by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE)/immunoblot analyses indicated that doses of 2.5-3 Mrads of γ-irradiation did not significantly affect the structural integrity of the recovered hOP-1. Biological activity of the recovered hOP-1 was confirmed in vitro by showing induction of alkaline phosphatase activity in rat osteosarcoma cells (ROS) and in vivo by de novo endochondral bone formation in the subcutaneous space of the rat. These findings in the adult primate indicate that a single application of γ-irradiated hOP-1 combined with the irradiated xenogeneic bovine collagenous matrix carrier is effective in regenerating and maintaining the architecture of the induced bone at doses of 0.5 mg/g and 2.5 mg/g of carrier matrix.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1798-1809
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2000


  • γ-Irradiation
  • Bone induction
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins
  • Collagenous matrices
  • Osteogenic protein-1
  • Primates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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