Liver and the Biliary Tract

Dimitrios Bogdanos, Patrick S Leung, M. Eric Gershwin

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The human liver is an integral part of the mucosal immune system. The particular anatomical structure of the liver together with its cellular components (both immunological and nonimmunological) and extracellular space components provide a unique sophisticated physiological environment in the regulation of homeostasis. Here, we will first take a panoramic view of the liver from the angle of a lymphoid organ and discuss the composition and role of the immunological players that are critical in modulating between immune tolerance and immune responsiveness. Dysregulation of immune homeostasis in the liver could lead to autoimmune responses that eventually destroy the architecture and inhibit the function of the liver, as manifested in autoimmune liver diseases such as autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. The natural history and clinical presentation, treatment, diagnostic criteria, etiology, immunobiology, and immunogenetics of these autoimmune liver diseases are discussed in detail.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMucosal Immunology: Fourth Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages23
ISBN (Print)9780124159754, 9780124158474
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015


  • Autoimmune disease
  • Biliary epithelial cell
  • Hepatocytes
  • Immunity
  • Liver
  • Lymphocytes
  • Tolerance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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