Traditionally, cell migration has been studied on two-dimensional, stiff plastic surfaces. However, during important biological processes such as wound healing, tissue regeneration, and cancer metastasis, cells must navigate through complex, three-dimensional extracellular tissue. To better understand the mechanisms behind these biological processes, it is important to examine the roles of the proteins responsible for driving cell migration. Here, we outline a protocol to study the mechanisms of cell migration using the epithelial cell line (MDCK), and a three-dimensional, fibrous, self-polymerizing matrix as a model system. This optically clear extracellular matrix is easily amenable to live-cell imaging studies and better mimics the physiological, soft tissue environment. This report demonstrates a technique for directly visualizing protein localization and dynamics, and deformation of the surrounding three-dimensional matrix. Examination of protein localization and dynamics during cellular processes provides key insight into protein functions. Genetically encoded fluorescent tags provide a unique method for observing protein localization and dynamics. Using this technique, we can analyze the subcellular accumulation of key, force-generating cytoskeletal components in real-time as the cell maneuvers through the matrix. In addition, using multiple fluorescent tags with different wavelengths, we can examine the localization of multiple proteins simultaneously, thus allowing us to test, for example, whether different proteins have similar or divergent roles. Furthermore, the dynamics of fluorescently tagged proteins can be quantified using Fluorescent Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) analysis. This measurement assays the protein mobility and how stably bound the proteins are to the cytoskeletal network. By combining live-cell imaging with the treatment of protein function inhibitors, we can examine in real-time the changes in the distribution of proteins and morphology of migrating cells. Furthermore, we also combine live-cell imaging with the use of fluorescent tracer particles embedded within the matrix to visualize the matrix deformation during cell migration. Thus, we can visualize how a migrating cell distributes force-generating proteins, and where the traction forces are exerted to the surrounding matrix. Through these techniques, we can gain valuable insight into the roles of specific proteins and their contributions to the mechanisms of cell migration.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE|
|State||Published - 2011|
ASJC Scopus subject areas