Liquid nitrogen cryosurgery for cutaneous and ocular neoplasms in koi (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus): Eight cases (2018-2019)

June Ang, Soohyun Kim, Katherine Watson, Felipe Pierezan, Kyra J. Berg, Zeinab Yazdi, Christopher J. Murphy, Esteban Soto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cryosurgery, also known as cryotherapy and cryoablation, is a promising surgical technique that employs highly localized freezing to destroy damaged and diseased tissue, including benign and malignant neoplasms. This procedure has been reported in the treatment of chromatophoromas, fibromas, and peripheral nerve sheath tumors in piscine patients. This study presents eight clinical cases of cryosurgery on cyprinid pet fish for a wide array of neoplastic masses, including chromatophoromas, squamous cell carcinoma, and sarcomas that were diagnosed by histopathology. Surgical excision of external masses, liquid nitrogen cryotherapy, injectable medications (meloxicam and danofloxacin), and topical medical-grade honey were applied to the patients after biopsy sampling. Five out of seven cutaneous cases and two out of three ocular cases had complete resolution without recurrence for at least three months posttreatment. Treatment was unsuccessful for two of the cutaneous cases in which the cutaneous masses were extremely invasive, resulting in severe ulceration and deep invasion into the coelomic cavity. One of the ocular cases involved a corneal mass that did not change in size and had no complications after treatments, suggesting that the treatment might be useful in limiting growth. The effectiveness of cryotherapy appears to correlate with the tumor type, as well as the stage and progression of tumor invasion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)763-773
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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