RATIONALE: Severe asthma is characterized by airway inflammatory responses associated with aberrant metabolism of arachidonic acid. Lipoxins (LX) are arachidonate-derived pro-resolving mediators that are decreased in severe asthma, yet mechanisms for defective LX biosynthesis and a means to increase LXs in severe asthma remain to be established.
OBJECTIVES: To determine if oxidative stress and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) activity are linked to decreased LX biosynthesis in severe asthma.
METHODS: Aliquots of blood, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were obtained from asthma subjects for mediator determination. Select samples were exposed to t-butyl-hydroperoxide or sEH inhibitor (sEHI) before activation. Peripheral blood leukocyte-platelet aggregates were monitored by flow cytometry, and bronchial contraction was determined with cytokine-treated human lung sections.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: 8-Isoprostane levels in sputum supernatants were inversely related to LXA4 in severe asthma (r = -0.55; P = 0.03) and t-butyl-hydroperoxide decreased LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 biosynthesis by peripheral blood leukocytes. LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 levels were inversely related to sEH activity in sputum supernatants and sEHIs significantly increased 14,15-epoxy-eicosatrienoic acid and 15-epi-LXA4 generation by severe asthma whole blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells. The abundance of peripheral blood leukocyte-platelet aggregates was related to asthma severity. In a concentration-dependent manner, LXs significantly inhibited platelet-activating factor-induced increases in leukocyte-platelet aggregates (70.8% inhibition [LXA4 100 nM], 78.3% inhibition [15-epi-LXA4 100 nM]) and 15-epi-LXA4 markedly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α-induced increases in bronchial contraction.
CONCLUSIONS: LX levels were decreased by oxidative stress and sEH activity. Inhibitors of sEH increased LXs that mediated antiphlogistic actions, suggesting a new therapeutic approach for severe asthma. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00595114).
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine|
|State||Published - Oct 15 2014|
- pro-resolving mediators
ASJC Scopus subject areas