Organophosphates (OPs), a class of phosphorus-containing chemicals that act by disrupting cholinergic transmission, include both toxic and fast-acting chemical warfare agents as well as less toxic but more easily accessible OP pesticides. The classical atropine/2-PAM antidote fails to protect against long-term symptoms following acute intoxication with OPs at levels that trigger status epilepticus. Acute OP intoxication also causes a robust neuroinflammatory response, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of long-term effects. In this study, we characterized the profiles of lipid mediators, important players in neuroinflammation, in the rat model of acute DFP intoxication. The profiles of lipid mediators were monitored in three different regions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum) at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-exposure. The distribution pattern of lipid mediators was distinct in the three brain regions. In the cerebellum, the profile is dominated by LOX metabolites, while the lipid mediator profiles in cortex and hippocampus are dominated by COX metabolites followed by LOX and CYP 450 metabolites. Following acute DFP intoxication, most of the pro-inflammatory lipid mediators (e.g., PGD2 and PGE2) increased rapidly from day 1, while the concentrations of some anti-inflammatory lipid mediators (e.g. 14,15 EpETrE) decreased after DFP intoxication but recovered by day 14 post-exposure. The lipidomics results suggest two potential treatment targets: blocking the formation of prostaglandins by inhibiting COX and stabilizing the anti-inflammatory lipid mediators containing epoxides by inhibiting the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH).
- Regulatory lipid mediators
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