Life in the inflamed intestine, Salmonella style

Renato L. Santos, Manuela Raffatellu, Charles L Bevins, L. Garry Adams, Çagla Tükel, Renee M Tsolis, Andreas J Baumler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

134 Scopus citations


The lower gastrointestinal tract is densely populated with resident microbial communities (microbiota), which do not elicit overt host responses but rather provide benefit to the host, including niche protection from pathogens. However, introduction of bacteria into the underlying tissue evokes acute inflammation. Non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) elicit this stereotypic host response by actively penetrating the intestinal epithelium and surviving in tissue macrophages. Initial responses generated by bacterial host cell interaction are amplified in tissue through the interleukin (IL)-18/interferon-γ and IL-23/IL-17 axes, resulting in the activation of mucosal barrier functions against NTS dissemination. However, the pathogen is adapted to survive antimicrobial defenses encountered in the lumen of the inflamed intestine. This strategy enables NTS to exploit inflammation to outcompete the intestinal microbiota, and promotes the Salmonella transmission by the fecal/oral route.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)498-506
Number of pages9
JournalTrends in Microbiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Microbiology
  • Virology


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