Lead toxicosis and trace element levels in wild birds and mammals at a firearms training facility

L. A. Lewis, Robert H Poppenga, W. R. Davidson, J. R. Fischer, K. A. Morgan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

58 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In May 1999, lead poisoning was diagnosed in a yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) and a gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) found at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), Glynn County, GA, based on detection of 6.2 and 90.0 ppm wet weight (WW) lead in the liver of the warbler and squirrel, respectively. From October 21-26, 1999, 72 wild animals (37 mammals and 35 birds), comprised of 22 different species, were collected from a 24-ha area surrounding the FLETC outdoor firearms shooting range complex to evaluate exposure to lead and other trace elements. Ten animals were used as controls (five mammals and five birds) and were collected from areas 1.5-3 km outside the shooting range area. Kidney and liver tissues were analyzed for lead, zinc, and other trace elements. Bird gizzards and white-tailed deer abomasums were examined grossly and radiographically to detect metallic objects. Twenty-four (33.3%) animals (11 species) had kidney or liver tissue lead levels > 1.00 ppm, and 12 of these (6 species) had levels > 2.00 ppm. Carcasses of one brown-thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) contained lead fragments. Elevated liver tissue levels of zinc (111.0 ppm) were detected in one brown thrasher that also had elevated kidney and liver tissue lead levels. In February 2000, seven yellow-rumped warblers and one solitary vireo (Vireo solitarius) found dead near the FLETC firearms shooting range also were diagnosed with lead poisoning, with liver and kidney tissue lead levels from 1.77-11.6 and 4.55-17.8 ppm WW, respectively. This frequency of elevated tissue lead levels among the animals examined, in combination with confirmed lead toxicosis in both avian and mammalian species at FLETC, indicates significant lead exposure of local wild bird and mammal communities via bullets and fragments in and on the soil surface of the four outdoor ranges. Most FLETC firearms training is being shifted to new baffled ranges (four walls with semiopen top) with bullet recovery capabilities to preclude future deposition of lead in the environment; existing outdoor ranges will be remediated to remove existing lead.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)208-214
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Volume41
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Mammals
Firearms
Trace Elements
Birds
Trace elements
Law Enforcement
Liver
mammal
law enforcement
Law enforcement
Lead
trace element
bird
Tissue
Songbirds
Animals
Industrial poisons
Kidney
Sciuridae
Lead Poisoning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Toxicology

Cite this

Lead toxicosis and trace element levels in wild birds and mammals at a firearms training facility. / Lewis, L. A.; Poppenga, Robert H; Davidson, W. R.; Fischer, J. R.; Morgan, K. A.

In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2001, p. 208-214.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{7f4602295cfe4c26bc50e74b5ce5d318,
title = "Lead toxicosis and trace element levels in wild birds and mammals at a firearms training facility",
abstract = "In May 1999, lead poisoning was diagnosed in a yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) and a gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) found at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), Glynn County, GA, based on detection of 6.2 and 90.0 ppm wet weight (WW) lead in the liver of the warbler and squirrel, respectively. From October 21-26, 1999, 72 wild animals (37 mammals and 35 birds), comprised of 22 different species, were collected from a 24-ha area surrounding the FLETC outdoor firearms shooting range complex to evaluate exposure to lead and other trace elements. Ten animals were used as controls (five mammals and five birds) and were collected from areas 1.5-3 km outside the shooting range area. Kidney and liver tissues were analyzed for lead, zinc, and other trace elements. Bird gizzards and white-tailed deer abomasums were examined grossly and radiographically to detect metallic objects. Twenty-four (33.3{\%}) animals (11 species) had kidney or liver tissue lead levels > 1.00 ppm, and 12 of these (6 species) had levels > 2.00 ppm. Carcasses of one brown-thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) contained lead fragments. Elevated liver tissue levels of zinc (111.0 ppm) were detected in one brown thrasher that also had elevated kidney and liver tissue lead levels. In February 2000, seven yellow-rumped warblers and one solitary vireo (Vireo solitarius) found dead near the FLETC firearms shooting range also were diagnosed with lead poisoning, with liver and kidney tissue lead levels from 1.77-11.6 and 4.55-17.8 ppm WW, respectively. This frequency of elevated tissue lead levels among the animals examined, in combination with confirmed lead toxicosis in both avian and mammalian species at FLETC, indicates significant lead exposure of local wild bird and mammal communities via bullets and fragments in and on the soil surface of the four outdoor ranges. Most FLETC firearms training is being shifted to new baffled ranges (four walls with semiopen top) with bullet recovery capabilities to preclude future deposition of lead in the environment; existing outdoor ranges will be remediated to remove existing lead.",
author = "Lewis, {L. A.} and Poppenga, {Robert H} and Davidson, {W. R.} and Fischer, {J. R.} and Morgan, {K. A.}",
year = "2001",
doi = "10.1007/s002440010239",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "41",
pages = "208--214",
journal = "Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology",
issn = "0090-4341",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Lead toxicosis and trace element levels in wild birds and mammals at a firearms training facility

AU - Lewis, L. A.

AU - Poppenga, Robert H

AU - Davidson, W. R.

AU - Fischer, J. R.

AU - Morgan, K. A.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - In May 1999, lead poisoning was diagnosed in a yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) and a gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) found at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), Glynn County, GA, based on detection of 6.2 and 90.0 ppm wet weight (WW) lead in the liver of the warbler and squirrel, respectively. From October 21-26, 1999, 72 wild animals (37 mammals and 35 birds), comprised of 22 different species, were collected from a 24-ha area surrounding the FLETC outdoor firearms shooting range complex to evaluate exposure to lead and other trace elements. Ten animals were used as controls (five mammals and five birds) and were collected from areas 1.5-3 km outside the shooting range area. Kidney and liver tissues were analyzed for lead, zinc, and other trace elements. Bird gizzards and white-tailed deer abomasums were examined grossly and radiographically to detect metallic objects. Twenty-four (33.3%) animals (11 species) had kidney or liver tissue lead levels > 1.00 ppm, and 12 of these (6 species) had levels > 2.00 ppm. Carcasses of one brown-thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) contained lead fragments. Elevated liver tissue levels of zinc (111.0 ppm) were detected in one brown thrasher that also had elevated kidney and liver tissue lead levels. In February 2000, seven yellow-rumped warblers and one solitary vireo (Vireo solitarius) found dead near the FLETC firearms shooting range also were diagnosed with lead poisoning, with liver and kidney tissue lead levels from 1.77-11.6 and 4.55-17.8 ppm WW, respectively. This frequency of elevated tissue lead levels among the animals examined, in combination with confirmed lead toxicosis in both avian and mammalian species at FLETC, indicates significant lead exposure of local wild bird and mammal communities via bullets and fragments in and on the soil surface of the four outdoor ranges. Most FLETC firearms training is being shifted to new baffled ranges (four walls with semiopen top) with bullet recovery capabilities to preclude future deposition of lead in the environment; existing outdoor ranges will be remediated to remove existing lead.

AB - In May 1999, lead poisoning was diagnosed in a yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) and a gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) found at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), Glynn County, GA, based on detection of 6.2 and 90.0 ppm wet weight (WW) lead in the liver of the warbler and squirrel, respectively. From October 21-26, 1999, 72 wild animals (37 mammals and 35 birds), comprised of 22 different species, were collected from a 24-ha area surrounding the FLETC outdoor firearms shooting range complex to evaluate exposure to lead and other trace elements. Ten animals were used as controls (five mammals and five birds) and were collected from areas 1.5-3 km outside the shooting range area. Kidney and liver tissues were analyzed for lead, zinc, and other trace elements. Bird gizzards and white-tailed deer abomasums were examined grossly and radiographically to detect metallic objects. Twenty-four (33.3%) animals (11 species) had kidney or liver tissue lead levels > 1.00 ppm, and 12 of these (6 species) had levels > 2.00 ppm. Carcasses of one brown-thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) contained lead fragments. Elevated liver tissue levels of zinc (111.0 ppm) were detected in one brown thrasher that also had elevated kidney and liver tissue lead levels. In February 2000, seven yellow-rumped warblers and one solitary vireo (Vireo solitarius) found dead near the FLETC firearms shooting range also were diagnosed with lead poisoning, with liver and kidney tissue lead levels from 1.77-11.6 and 4.55-17.8 ppm WW, respectively. This frequency of elevated tissue lead levels among the animals examined, in combination with confirmed lead toxicosis in both avian and mammalian species at FLETC, indicates significant lead exposure of local wild bird and mammal communities via bullets and fragments in and on the soil surface of the four outdoor ranges. Most FLETC firearms training is being shifted to new baffled ranges (four walls with semiopen top) with bullet recovery capabilities to preclude future deposition of lead in the environment; existing outdoor ranges will be remediated to remove existing lead.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034896504&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034896504&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s002440010239

DO - 10.1007/s002440010239

M3 - Article

VL - 41

SP - 208

EP - 214

JO - Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

JF - Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

SN - 0090-4341

IS - 2

ER -