Lead and zinc intoxication in companion birds.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Although the toxicity of lead and zinc to birds is widely recognized by veterinarians and bird owners, these metals are frequently found in the environments of pet and aviary birds, and intoxications are common. Clinical signs exhibited by intoxicated birds are often nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Fortunately, lead and zinc analyses of whole blood and serum or plasma, respectively, are readily available and inexpensive; elevated concentrations can confirm intoxication. Once diagnosed, intoxication can be effectively treated by (1) preventing further exposure, (2) administering chelating drugs, and (3) providing symptomatic and supportive care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCompendium (Yardley, PA)
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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