Background: Down syndrome (DS) is associated with elevated rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism symptomatology. To better characterise heterogeneity in ASD symptomatology in DS, profiles of caregiver-reported ASD symptoms were modelled for children and adolescents with DS. Methods: Participants (n = 125) were recruited through several multi-site research studies on cognition and language in DS. Using the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2; Constantino and Gruber 2012), two latent profile analyses (LPA) were performed, one on the broad composite scores of social communication and interaction and restricted interests and repetitive behaviour, and a second on the four social dimensions of social communication, social motivation, social awareness, and social cognition. Results: A three-profile model was the best fit for both analyses, with each analysis yielding a low ASD symptom profile, an elevated or mixed ASD symptom profile and a high ASD symptom profile. Associations were observed between profile probability scores and IQ, the number of co-occurring biomedical conditions reported, sex, and SRS-2 form. Conclusions: Characterising heterogeneity in ASD symptom profiles can inform more personalised supports in this population, and implications for potential therapeutic approaches for individuals with DS are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Clinical Neurology
- Psychiatry and Mental health