Landscape Ecology of Arboviruses in Southeastern California: Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Enzootic Activity in Imperial Valley, 1991-1994

William Reisen, H. D. Lothrop, S. B. Presser, J. L. Hardy, E. W. Gordon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses were detected in the Imperial Valley during the summers of 1991-1994 by isolation from the primary vector, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and by the seroconversion of sentinel chickens. Enzootic transmission consistently was not detected first each year at sampling sites near specific landscape features such as a heron rookery and other riparian habitats along the New River, sites along the Mexican border, or saline and freshwater marshes along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. Despite mild winter temperatures and the elevated venial abundance of Cx. tarsalis, WEE and SLE activity was not detected until June or July, indicating considerable amplification may be necessary before detection by testing mosquito pools for virus infection or sentinel chicken sera for antibodies. Results did not permit the spatial focusing of early season control efforts or research on mechanisms of virus interseasonal persistence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)179-188
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Medical Entomology
Volume34
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1997

Fingerprint

Western Equine Encephalomyelitis
Western equine encephalomyelitis
Arboviruses
landscape ecology
arboviruses
Ecology
Chickens
St. Louis Encephalitis
St. Louis Encephalitis Viruses
valleys
Saint Louis encephalitis virus
chickens
Culex tarsalis
viruses
Culex
Ardeidae
Wetlands
seroconversion
Virus Diseases
encephalitis

Keywords

  • Arbovirus transmission
  • California
  • Culex tarsalis
  • Landscape ecology
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus
  • Western equine encephalomyelitis virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary(all)
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Landscape Ecology of Arboviruses in Southeastern California : Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Enzootic Activity in Imperial Valley, 1991-1994. / Reisen, William; Lothrop, H. D.; Presser, S. B.; Hardy, J. L.; Gordon, E. W.

In: Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 34, No. 2, 01.01.1997, p. 179-188.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{26580bc715dd411aab988a91caab23e6,
title = "Landscape Ecology of Arboviruses in Southeastern California: Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Enzootic Activity in Imperial Valley, 1991-1994",
abstract = "Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses were detected in the Imperial Valley during the summers of 1991-1994 by isolation from the primary vector, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and by the seroconversion of sentinel chickens. Enzootic transmission consistently was not detected first each year at sampling sites near specific landscape features such as a heron rookery and other riparian habitats along the New River, sites along the Mexican border, or saline and freshwater marshes along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. Despite mild winter temperatures and the elevated venial abundance of Cx. tarsalis, WEE and SLE activity was not detected until June or July, indicating considerable amplification may be necessary before detection by testing mosquito pools for virus infection or sentinel chicken sera for antibodies. Results did not permit the spatial focusing of early season control efforts or research on mechanisms of virus interseasonal persistence.",
keywords = "Arbovirus transmission, California, Culex tarsalis, Landscape ecology, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus",
author = "William Reisen and Lothrop, {H. D.} and Presser, {S. B.} and Hardy, {J. L.} and Gordon, {E. W.}",
year = "1997",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/jmedent/34.2.179",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "34",
pages = "179--188",
journal = "Journal of Medical Entomology",
issn = "0022-2585",
publisher = "Entomological Society of America",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Landscape Ecology of Arboviruses in Southeastern California

T2 - Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Enzootic Activity in Imperial Valley, 1991-1994

AU - Reisen, William

AU - Lothrop, H. D.

AU - Presser, S. B.

AU - Hardy, J. L.

AU - Gordon, E. W.

PY - 1997/1/1

Y1 - 1997/1/1

N2 - Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses were detected in the Imperial Valley during the summers of 1991-1994 by isolation from the primary vector, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and by the seroconversion of sentinel chickens. Enzootic transmission consistently was not detected first each year at sampling sites near specific landscape features such as a heron rookery and other riparian habitats along the New River, sites along the Mexican border, or saline and freshwater marshes along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. Despite mild winter temperatures and the elevated venial abundance of Cx. tarsalis, WEE and SLE activity was not detected until June or July, indicating considerable amplification may be necessary before detection by testing mosquito pools for virus infection or sentinel chicken sera for antibodies. Results did not permit the spatial focusing of early season control efforts or research on mechanisms of virus interseasonal persistence.

AB - Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses were detected in the Imperial Valley during the summers of 1991-1994 by isolation from the primary vector, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and by the seroconversion of sentinel chickens. Enzootic transmission consistently was not detected first each year at sampling sites near specific landscape features such as a heron rookery and other riparian habitats along the New River, sites along the Mexican border, or saline and freshwater marshes along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. Despite mild winter temperatures and the elevated venial abundance of Cx. tarsalis, WEE and SLE activity was not detected until June or July, indicating considerable amplification may be necessary before detection by testing mosquito pools for virus infection or sentinel chicken sera for antibodies. Results did not permit the spatial focusing of early season control efforts or research on mechanisms of virus interseasonal persistence.

KW - Arbovirus transmission

KW - California

KW - Culex tarsalis

KW - Landscape ecology

KW - St. Louis encephalitis virus

KW - Western equine encephalomyelitis virus

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031088075&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031088075&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/jmedent/34.2.179

DO - 10.1093/jmedent/34.2.179

M3 - Article

C2 - 9103761

AN - SCOPUS:0031088075

VL - 34

SP - 179

EP - 188

JO - Journal of Medical Entomology

JF - Journal of Medical Entomology

SN - 0022-2585

IS - 2

ER -