Landscape Ecology of Arboviruses in Southeastern California: Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Enzootic Activity in Imperial Valley, 1991-1994

William Reisen, H. D. Lothrop, S. B. Presser, J. L. Hardy, E. W. Gordon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses were detected in the Imperial Valley during the summers of 1991-1994 by isolation from the primary vector, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and by the seroconversion of sentinel chickens. Enzootic transmission consistently was not detected first each year at sampling sites near specific landscape features such as a heron rookery and other riparian habitats along the New River, sites along the Mexican border, or saline and freshwater marshes along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. Despite mild winter temperatures and the elevated venial abundance of Cx. tarsalis, WEE and SLE activity was not detected until June or July, indicating considerable amplification may be necessary before detection by testing mosquito pools for virus infection or sentinel chicken sera for antibodies. Results did not permit the spatial focusing of early season control efforts or research on mechanisms of virus interseasonal persistence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)179-188
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Medical Entomology
Volume34
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1997

Keywords

  • Arbovirus transmission
  • California
  • Culex tarsalis
  • Landscape ecology
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus
  • Western equine encephalomyelitis virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary(all)
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases

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