Lack of galectin-3 drives response to paracoccidioides brasiliensis toward a Th2-biased immunity

Luciana Pereira Ruas, Emerson Soares Bernardes, Marise Lopes Fermino, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Daniel K. Hsu, Fu-Tong Liu, Roger Chammas, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira

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39 Scopus citations


There is recent evidence that galectin-3 participates in immunity to infections, mostly by tuning cytokine production. We studied the balance of Th1/Th2 responses to P. brasiliensis experimental infection in the absence of galectin-3. The intermediate resistance to the fungal infection presented by C57BL/6 mice, associated with the development of a mixed type of immunity, was replaced with susceptibility to infection and a Th2-polarized immune response, in galectin-3-deficient (gal3-1-) mice. Such a response was associated with defective inflammatory and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions, high IL-4 and GATA-3 expression and low nitric oxide production in the organs of infected animals. Gal3-1- macrophages exhibited higher TLR2 transcript levels and IL-10 production compared to wild-type macrophages after stimulation with P. brasiliensis antigens. We hypothesize that, during an in vivo P. brasiliensis infection, galectin-3 exerts its tuning role on immunity by interfering with the generation of regulatory macrophages, thus hindering the consequent Th2-polarized type of response. Copyright:

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere4519
JournalPLoS One
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 20 2009


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Ruas, L. P., Bernardes, E. S., Fermino, M. L., de Oliveira, L. L., Hsu, D. K., Liu, F-T., Chammas, R., & Roque-Barreira, M. C. (2009). Lack of galectin-3 drives response to paracoccidioides brasiliensis toward a Th2-biased immunity. PLoS One, 4(2), [e4519].