K+ waves in brain cortex visualized using a long-wavelength K+-sensing fluorescent indicator

Prashant Padmawar, Xiaoming Yao, Orin Bloch, Geoffrey T. Manley, A. S. Verkman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

183 Scopus citations


We synthesized a water-soluble, long-wavelength K+ sensor, TAC-Red, consisting of triazacryptand coupled to 3,6-bis(dimethylamino)xanthylium, whose fluorescence increased 14-fold at 0-50 mM K+ with K+-to-Na+ selectivity >30. We visualized K+ waves in TAC-Red-stained brain cortex in mice during spreading depression, with velocity 4.4 ± 0.5 mm/min, and K+ release and reuptake half-times (t1/2) of 12 ± 2 and 32 ± 4 s, respectively. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) deletion slowed K+ reuptake about twofold, suggesting AQP4-dependent K+ uptake by astroglia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)825-827
Number of pages3
JournalNature Methods
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2005
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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