BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - This study investigated whether isoflurane ameliorates neurological sequelae after germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) through activation of the cytoprotective sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor/Akt pathway. METHODS - GMH was induced in P7 rat pups by intraparenchymal infusion of bacterial collagenase (0.3 U) into the right hemispheric germinal matrix. GMH animals received 2% isoflurane either once 1 hour after surgery or every 12 hours for 3 days. Isoflurane treatment was then combined with sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1/2 antagonist VPC23019 or sphingosine kinase 1/2 antagonist N,N-dimethylsphingosine. RESULTS - Brain protein expression of sphingosine kinase-1 and phosphorylated Akt were significantly increased after isoflurane post-treatment, and cleaved caspase-3 was decreased at 24 hours after surgery, which was reversed by the antagonists. Isoflurane significantly reduced posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation and improved motor, but not cognitive, functions in GMH animals 3 weeks after surgery; no improvements were observed after VPC23019 administration. CONCLUSIONS - Isoflurane post-treatment improved the neurological sequelae after GMH possibly by activation of the sphingosine kinase/Akt pathway.
- Sphingosine kinase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Clinical Neurology
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing