Background: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel ablation technique that induces permanent membrane permeability and cell death. We are interested in ultrasound B-mode and elastography to monitor IRE ablation in the liver. Methods: Yorkshire pigs underwent IRE ablation of the liver and were imaged with ultrasound B-mode and elastography. Histologic evaluation of cell death by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed. Results: Elastography showed that liver ablated by IRE exhibited increased tissue stiffness with a peak strain ratio of 2.22. The IRE lesion had a discrete border without bubble artifact, and the lesion size significantly correlated with area of cell death on histology. IRE ablation was unaffected by presence of large blood vessels or bile ducts. Conclusion: IRE ablation led to increased tissue stiffness that was detectable by elastography and indicative of cell death. Elastography may complement B-mode ultrasonography to monitor IRE ablation of the liver.
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