Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection constitutes a serious threat to patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Recently we reported that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of CD4+ cells was associated with sustained elevation of cellular levels of cAMP. Moreover, cyclic nucleotide modulators enhanced HIV replication by increasing intracellular levels of cAMP. In this study, the effect of CMV on HIV replication in CMV/HIV mixed infection and its relationship to cAMP were examined. MT-4 cells, CMV strain AD169, and HIV strain IIIB were used. Optimal enhancement (4.4-fold increase) of HIV replication was observed when MT-4 cells were infected with CMV at Day 0 followed by HIV on Day 4 after infection, as determined by reverse transcriptase activity on Day 11 after infection. cAMP (measured by radioimmunoassay) levels in cells infected with CMV alone, HIV alone, or CMV/HIV together were 2-, 3-, and 5-fold above untreated cells, respectively. CMV also enhanced the replication of UV-irradiated HIV 4-fold and this was associated with a 2-fold increase in cAMP as well. Moreover, UV-irradiated CMV enhanced HIV replication 8.8-fold. The same dose of viable and UV- irradiated CMV used in the above experiments increased protein kinase C activity in these cells 3.0- and 8.0-fold, respectively. These findings might suggest that cAMP and protein kinase C are involved in CMV enhancement of HIV replication. These findings may have relevance to the identification of novel target sites for development of antiviral therapeutics.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine|
|State||Published - 1993|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)