Background: As a co-receptor for fibroblast growth factor 23, klotho plays a pivotal role in phosphate metabolism. The kidney is known to be the main source of soluble alpha-klotho and the principal regulator of its concentration. Previous studies in human participants showed that the concentration of soluble alpha-klotho in serum and urine decreased in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, no previous study has assessed soluble alpha-klotho levels in dogs. This study aimed to measure serum and urinary alpha-klotho levels in CKD dogs and identify their associations with International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) CKD stages and other parameters known to be associated with CKD. Results: Serum and urinary alpha klotho concentrations were measured by a commercially available canine-specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and compared between groups by a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationships between variables. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to estimate the effects of independent predictors on klotho concentrations. The urine klotho-to-creatinine ratio (UrKl/Cr) was significantly lower in stage 3 dogs than the control group and was significantly lower in dogs with stage 3 and 4 CKD than in those with stage 1 and 2 disease. UrKl/Cr was negatively correlated with serum symmetric dimethylarginine (sSDMA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and phosphorus concentration. Serum alpha-klotho concentration in dogs with stages 2 and 3 CKD was significantly lower than those in the control group. There was no significant correlation between serum alpha-klotho and BUN, creatinine, and phosphorus concentrations. No statistically significant differences were observed in UrKl/Cr and serum alpha-klotho concentration between groups based on sex, age, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC), or blood pressure. Conclusions: UrKl/Cr decreased in dogs with advanced CKD, and it was negatively correlated with sSDMA, BUN, creatinine, and phosphorus concentrations. Thus, klotho is associated with CKD and its clinical consequences, including CKD-mineral bone disorder, in dogs. Although serum klotho concentration was negatively correlated with sSDMA levels, it was not apparently related to IRIS CKD stage or other parameters known to be associated with CKD.
- Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD)
- Keywords:: Canine
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