Investigation of an experimental infection model of equine coronavirus in adult horses

Emily Schaefer, Corey Harms, Molly Viner, Samantha Barnum, Nicola Pusterla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is a recently reported enteric disease of adult horses. Natural infection by ECoV has been reported in adult horses worldwide, whereas experimental infection has only been reported in juvenile horses. An experimental infection model is needed to study the clinical presentation, laboratory abnormalities, and pathophysiological changes associated with ECoV. Objectives: To investigate the clinical, hematologic, molecular, and serological features of adult horses experimentally infected with ECoV. Animals: Eight adult horses. Methods: Four horses were intragastrically infected with fecal material containing 109 genome equivalents of ECoV. Four additional horses were exposed daily to the feces from the experimentally-infected horses. Monitoring included physical examinations, as well as daily nasal swab, whole blood, and fecal collection for molecular detection of ECoV. Blood was collected every other day for hematologic analysis and weekly for serologic analysis. Results: All 8 horses shed ECoV in feces. Six of the 8 horses (75%) exhibited mild, clinical disease with soft, formed manure; 1 horse exhibited transient pyrexia. All horses maintained total white cell counts within normal limits, but 3 horses developed transient lymphopenia. No statistically significant differences (P =.20) were observed in quantity of fecal shedding of ECoV between the 2 groups. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Experimental infection of adult horses with ECoV was associated with mild and self-limiting clinical signs, transient lymphopenia, and fecal shedding of ECoV, which mimics natural infection. No differences between experimentally-infected horses and horses exposed to ECoV-containing feces were identified. Results of our study support a fecal-oral route of transmission.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Coronavirus
Coronavirinae
Horses
Theoretical Models
horses
Infection
infection
Feces
Lymphopenia
feces

Keywords

  • enteric
  • experimental infection
  • polymerase chain reaction
  • serology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Investigation of an experimental infection model of equine coronavirus in adult horses. / Schaefer, Emily; Harms, Corey; Viner, Molly; Barnum, Samantha; Pusterla, Nicola.

In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{2d71cca12d644453a9098a7a5795779b,
title = "Investigation of an experimental infection model of equine coronavirus in adult horses",
abstract = "Background: Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is a recently reported enteric disease of adult horses. Natural infection by ECoV has been reported in adult horses worldwide, whereas experimental infection has only been reported in juvenile horses. An experimental infection model is needed to study the clinical presentation, laboratory abnormalities, and pathophysiological changes associated with ECoV. Objectives: To investigate the clinical, hematologic, molecular, and serological features of adult horses experimentally infected with ECoV. Animals: Eight adult horses. Methods: Four horses were intragastrically infected with fecal material containing 109 genome equivalents of ECoV. Four additional horses were exposed daily to the feces from the experimentally-infected horses. Monitoring included physical examinations, as well as daily nasal swab, whole blood, and fecal collection for molecular detection of ECoV. Blood was collected every other day for hematologic analysis and weekly for serologic analysis. Results: All 8 horses shed ECoV in feces. Six of the 8 horses (75{\%}) exhibited mild, clinical disease with soft, formed manure; 1 horse exhibited transient pyrexia. All horses maintained total white cell counts within normal limits, but 3 horses developed transient lymphopenia. No statistically significant differences (P =.20) were observed in quantity of fecal shedding of ECoV between the 2 groups. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Experimental infection of adult horses with ECoV was associated with mild and self-limiting clinical signs, transient lymphopenia, and fecal shedding of ECoV, which mimics natural infection. No differences between experimentally-infected horses and horses exposed to ECoV-containing feces were identified. Results of our study support a fecal-oral route of transmission.",
keywords = "enteric, experimental infection, polymerase chain reaction, serology",
author = "Emily Schaefer and Corey Harms and Molly Viner and Samantha Barnum and Nicola Pusterla",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/jvim.15318",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine",
issn = "0891-6640",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Investigation of an experimental infection model of equine coronavirus in adult horses

AU - Schaefer, Emily

AU - Harms, Corey

AU - Viner, Molly

AU - Barnum, Samantha

AU - Pusterla, Nicola

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Background: Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is a recently reported enteric disease of adult horses. Natural infection by ECoV has been reported in adult horses worldwide, whereas experimental infection has only been reported in juvenile horses. An experimental infection model is needed to study the clinical presentation, laboratory abnormalities, and pathophysiological changes associated with ECoV. Objectives: To investigate the clinical, hematologic, molecular, and serological features of adult horses experimentally infected with ECoV. Animals: Eight adult horses. Methods: Four horses were intragastrically infected with fecal material containing 109 genome equivalents of ECoV. Four additional horses were exposed daily to the feces from the experimentally-infected horses. Monitoring included physical examinations, as well as daily nasal swab, whole blood, and fecal collection for molecular detection of ECoV. Blood was collected every other day for hematologic analysis and weekly for serologic analysis. Results: All 8 horses shed ECoV in feces. Six of the 8 horses (75%) exhibited mild, clinical disease with soft, formed manure; 1 horse exhibited transient pyrexia. All horses maintained total white cell counts within normal limits, but 3 horses developed transient lymphopenia. No statistically significant differences (P =.20) were observed in quantity of fecal shedding of ECoV between the 2 groups. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Experimental infection of adult horses with ECoV was associated with mild and self-limiting clinical signs, transient lymphopenia, and fecal shedding of ECoV, which mimics natural infection. No differences between experimentally-infected horses and horses exposed to ECoV-containing feces were identified. Results of our study support a fecal-oral route of transmission.

AB - Background: Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is a recently reported enteric disease of adult horses. Natural infection by ECoV has been reported in adult horses worldwide, whereas experimental infection has only been reported in juvenile horses. An experimental infection model is needed to study the clinical presentation, laboratory abnormalities, and pathophysiological changes associated with ECoV. Objectives: To investigate the clinical, hematologic, molecular, and serological features of adult horses experimentally infected with ECoV. Animals: Eight adult horses. Methods: Four horses were intragastrically infected with fecal material containing 109 genome equivalents of ECoV. Four additional horses were exposed daily to the feces from the experimentally-infected horses. Monitoring included physical examinations, as well as daily nasal swab, whole blood, and fecal collection for molecular detection of ECoV. Blood was collected every other day for hematologic analysis and weekly for serologic analysis. Results: All 8 horses shed ECoV in feces. Six of the 8 horses (75%) exhibited mild, clinical disease with soft, formed manure; 1 horse exhibited transient pyrexia. All horses maintained total white cell counts within normal limits, but 3 horses developed transient lymphopenia. No statistically significant differences (P =.20) were observed in quantity of fecal shedding of ECoV between the 2 groups. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Experimental infection of adult horses with ECoV was associated with mild and self-limiting clinical signs, transient lymphopenia, and fecal shedding of ECoV, which mimics natural infection. No differences between experimentally-infected horses and horses exposed to ECoV-containing feces were identified. Results of our study support a fecal-oral route of transmission.

KW - enteric

KW - experimental infection

KW - polymerase chain reaction

KW - serology

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85055492699&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85055492699&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/jvim.15318

DO - 10.1111/jvim.15318

M3 - Article

C2 - 30353949

AN - SCOPUS:85055492699

JO - Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

JF - Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

SN - 0891-6640

ER -