Investigating associations between biting time in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton and single nucleotide polymorphisms in circadian clock genes: Support for sub-structure among An. arabiensis in the Kilombero valley of Tanzania

Deodatus Vincent Maliti, C. D. Marsden, Bradley Main, N. J. Govella, Y. Yamasaki, T. C. Collier, K. Kreppel, J. C. Chiu, Gregory C Lanzaro, H. M. Ferguson, Yoosook Lee

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Abstract

Background: There is growing evidence that the widespread use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) is prompting malaria vectors to shift their biting towards times and places where people are not protected, such as earlier in the evening and/or outdoors. It is uncertain whether these behavioural shifts are due to phenotypic plasticity and/or ecological changes within vector communities that favour more exophilic species, or involve genetic factors within vector species to limit their contact with LLINs. Possibly variation in the time and location of mosquito biting has a genetic basis, but as yet this phenomenon has received little investigation. Here we used a candidate gene approach to investigate whether polymorphisms in selected circadian clock genes could explain variation in the time and location of feeding (indoors versus outside) within a natural population of the major African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis. Methods: Host-seeking An. arabiensis were collected from two villages (Lupiro and Sagamaganga) in Tanzania by Human Landing Catch (HLC) technique. Mosquitoes were classified into phenotypes of "early" (7 pm-10 pm) or "late" biting (4 am -7 am), and host-seeking indoors or outdoors. In these samples we genotyped 34 coding SNPs in 8 clock genes (PER, TIM, CLK, CYC, PDP1, VRI, CRY1, and CRY2), and tested for associations between these SNPs and biting phenotypes. SNPs in 8 mitochondrial genes (ATP6, ATP8, COX1, COX2, COX3, ND3, ND5 and CYTB) were also genotyped to test population subdivision within An. arabiensis. Results: The candidate clock genes exhibited polymorphism within An. arabiensis, but it was unrelated to variation in the timing and location of their biting activity. However, there was evidence of strong genetic structure within An. arabiensis populations in association with the TIM, which was unrelated to geographic distance. Substructure within An. arabiensis was also detected using mitochondrial markers. Conclusions: The variable timing and location of biting in An. arabiensis could not be linked to candidate clock genes that are known to influence behaviour in other Diptera. This finding does not rule out the possibility of a genetic basis to biting behaviour in this malaria vector, but suggests these are complex phenotypes that require more intensive ecological, neuronal and genomic analyses to understand.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number109
JournalParasites and Vectors
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

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Circadian Clocks
Anopheles
Tanzania
Malaria
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Genes
Culicidae
Phenotype
Population
Mitochondrial Genes
Genetic Structures
Diptera

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Investigating associations between biting time in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton and single nucleotide polymorphisms in circadian clock genes : Support for sub-structure among An. arabiensis in the Kilombero valley of Tanzania. / Maliti, Deodatus Vincent; Marsden, C. D.; Main, Bradley; Govella, N. J.; Yamasaki, Y.; Collier, T. C.; Kreppel, K.; Chiu, J. C.; Lanzaro, Gregory C; Ferguson, H. M.; Lee, Yoosook.

In: Parasites and Vectors, Vol. 9, No. 1, 109, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: There is growing evidence that the widespread use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) is prompting malaria vectors to shift their biting towards times and places where people are not protected, such as earlier in the evening and/or outdoors. It is uncertain whether these behavioural shifts are due to phenotypic plasticity and/or ecological changes within vector communities that favour more exophilic species, or involve genetic factors within vector species to limit their contact with LLINs. Possibly variation in the time and location of mosquito biting has a genetic basis, but as yet this phenomenon has received little investigation. Here we used a candidate gene approach to investigate whether polymorphisms in selected circadian clock genes could explain variation in the time and location of feeding (indoors versus outside) within a natural population of the major African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis. Methods: Host-seeking An. arabiensis were collected from two villages (Lupiro and Sagamaganga) in Tanzania by Human Landing Catch (HLC) technique. Mosquitoes were classified into phenotypes of {"}early{"} (7 pm-10 pm) or {"}late{"} biting (4 am -7 am), and host-seeking indoors or outdoors. In these samples we genotyped 34 coding SNPs in 8 clock genes (PER, TIM, CLK, CYC, PDP1, VRI, CRY1, and CRY2), and tested for associations between these SNPs and biting phenotypes. SNPs in 8 mitochondrial genes (ATP6, ATP8, COX1, COX2, COX3, ND3, ND5 and CYTB) were also genotyped to test population subdivision within An. arabiensis. Results: The candidate clock genes exhibited polymorphism within An. arabiensis, but it was unrelated to variation in the timing and location of their biting activity. However, there was evidence of strong genetic structure within An. arabiensis populations in association with the TIM, which was unrelated to geographic distance. Substructure within An. arabiensis was also detected using mitochondrial markers. Conclusions: The variable timing and location of biting in An. arabiensis could not be linked to candidate clock genes that are known to influence behaviour in other Diptera. This finding does not rule out the possibility of a genetic basis to biting behaviour in this malaria vector, but suggests these are complex phenotypes that require more intensive ecological, neuronal and genomic analyses to understand.",
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T1 - Investigating associations between biting time in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton and single nucleotide polymorphisms in circadian clock genes

T2 - Support for sub-structure among An. arabiensis in the Kilombero valley of Tanzania

AU - Maliti, Deodatus Vincent

AU - Marsden, C. D.

AU - Main, Bradley

AU - Govella, N. J.

AU - Yamasaki, Y.

AU - Collier, T. C.

AU - Kreppel, K.

AU - Chiu, J. C.

AU - Lanzaro, Gregory C

AU - Ferguson, H. M.

AU - Lee, Yoosook

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Background: There is growing evidence that the widespread use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) is prompting malaria vectors to shift their biting towards times and places where people are not protected, such as earlier in the evening and/or outdoors. It is uncertain whether these behavioural shifts are due to phenotypic plasticity and/or ecological changes within vector communities that favour more exophilic species, or involve genetic factors within vector species to limit their contact with LLINs. Possibly variation in the time and location of mosquito biting has a genetic basis, but as yet this phenomenon has received little investigation. Here we used a candidate gene approach to investigate whether polymorphisms in selected circadian clock genes could explain variation in the time and location of feeding (indoors versus outside) within a natural population of the major African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis. Methods: Host-seeking An. arabiensis were collected from two villages (Lupiro and Sagamaganga) in Tanzania by Human Landing Catch (HLC) technique. Mosquitoes were classified into phenotypes of "early" (7 pm-10 pm) or "late" biting (4 am -7 am), and host-seeking indoors or outdoors. In these samples we genotyped 34 coding SNPs in 8 clock genes (PER, TIM, CLK, CYC, PDP1, VRI, CRY1, and CRY2), and tested for associations between these SNPs and biting phenotypes. SNPs in 8 mitochondrial genes (ATP6, ATP8, COX1, COX2, COX3, ND3, ND5 and CYTB) were also genotyped to test population subdivision within An. arabiensis. Results: The candidate clock genes exhibited polymorphism within An. arabiensis, but it was unrelated to variation in the timing and location of their biting activity. However, there was evidence of strong genetic structure within An. arabiensis populations in association with the TIM, which was unrelated to geographic distance. Substructure within An. arabiensis was also detected using mitochondrial markers. Conclusions: The variable timing and location of biting in An. arabiensis could not be linked to candidate clock genes that are known to influence behaviour in other Diptera. This finding does not rule out the possibility of a genetic basis to biting behaviour in this malaria vector, but suggests these are complex phenotypes that require more intensive ecological, neuronal and genomic analyses to understand.

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