Introgression between Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii in Burkina Faso and its associations with kdr resistance and Plasmodium infection

Mark J. Hanemaaijer, Hannah Higgins, Ipek Eralp, Youki Yamasaki, Norbert Becker, Oscar D. Kirstein, Gregory C Lanzaro, Yoosook Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Insecticide resistance in Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes has become widespread throughout West Africa including in Burkina Faso. The insecticide resistance allele (kdr or L1014F) is a prime indicator that is highly correlated with phenotypic resistance in West Africa. Studies from Benin, Ghana and Mali have suggested that the source of the L1014F is introgression of the 2L divergence island via interspecific hybridization with Anopheles gambiae. The goal of this study was to characterize local mosquito populations in the Nouna Department, Burkina Faso with respect to: (i) the extent of introgression between An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, (ii) the frequency of the L1014F mutation and (iii) Plasmodium infection rates. Methods: A total of 95 mosquitoes were collected from ten sites surrounding Nouna town in Kossi Province, Burkina Faso in 2012. The species composition, the extent of introgression in An. coluzzii mosquitoes and their Plasmodium infection rates were identified with a modified version of the "Divergence Island SNP" (DIS) genotyping assay. Results: The mosquito collection contained 70.5% An. coluzzii, 89.3% of which carried a 3 Mb genomic region on the 2L chromosome with L1014F insecticide resistance mutation that was introgressed from An. gambiae. In addition, 22.4% in the introgressed An. coluzzii specimens were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, whereas none of the non-introgressed ("pure") An. coluzzii were infected. Conclusion: This paper is the first report providing divergence island SNP genotypes for natural population of Burkina Faso and corresponding Plasmodium infection rates. These observations warrant further study and could have a major impact on future malaria control strategies in Burkina Faso.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number127
JournalMalaria Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 11 2019


  • Anopheles
  • Burkina Faso
  • Gene flow
  • Insecticide resistance
  • Malaria vector
  • Plasmodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases


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