Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), a variety of common carp, has gained popularity as an ornamental fish worldwide. Their high monetary and sentimental value has necessitated the development of antemortem diagnostic options. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scanning with intravenous iopamidol has been shown to be safe and diagnostically effective at a minimum dose of 480 mg iodine (I)/kg in koi. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of this dose of iopamidol, as well as excretory mechanisms specific to fish, using common carp as a model. Blood, posterior kidney, gill, and bile were collected, necessitating sacrificial sampling. Thirty-five adult fish were randomly divided into six sampling groups. Five sampling groups (n = 6/group) received 480 mg I/kg; the control group (n = 5) received an equivalent volume of saline. The iopamidol groups were sampled at the following time points postinjection: 5 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, 24 hr, and 48 hr. The control group was sampled at 48 hr. Concentrations of iopamidol were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; noncompartmental analysis was used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Total clearance (3.04 ml/hr per kilogram) was slower, the volume of distribution smaller (79.92 ml/kg), and the elimination half-life (20.39 hr) prolonged compared to similar studies in mammals. The time-concentration profiles of kidney and gill were similar; these organs appear to be responsible for the majority of iopamidol excretion. However, that of bile was much different, showing slower, low-level accumulation with time, suggesting that in fish, multiple organ systems play a role in elimination beyond just the kidney. In particular, they may rely more heavily upon biliary excretion, which thus far has been noted only in mammals with renal impairment. Further research is warranted to investigate if the slower elimination allows diagnostic CT images to be acquired at different time points postinjection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Animal Science and Zoology