Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is a common procedure used to aid in the diagnosis of diffuse myocardial diseases and, less commonly, in the diagnosis of cardiac tumors. As cardiac tumors are often found in high-risk locations (ventricular free wall or atria), precision biopsy is paramount, and additional imaging, like transesophageal echocardiography is often required for guidance. The use of intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) to guide biopsy has been described, but there is no consensus on a standardized approach. We report our institutional approach with three cases of ICE-directed EMB performed with the 2.4 mm Jawz bioptome directed with an 8.5-Fr Agilis NxT steerable introducer. All cases were performed under guidance with the AcuNav ICE probe. There were no procedural complications and a definitive diagnosis was obtained in all three cases. We also review the available published cases of ICE-guided EMB in the literature–noting the different procedural approaches, complication rate, and diagnostic yield. There were only two negative biopsies reported among the published cases and no reported complications. Our review of all these cases suggests that ICE-guidance for EMB is superior to other forms of imaging in its ease of use and high definition of right-sided cardiac structures. We also feel that the use of the Agilis steerable sheath allows for more precise directing of the bioptome and is a critical component in performing a successful targeted biopsy.
- cardiac tumors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine