Current treatments for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) largely fall into two classes: androgen receptor (AR)targeted therapies such as the next-generation antiandrogen therapies (NGAT), enzalutamide and abiraterone, and taxanes such as docetaxel and cabazitaxel. Despite improvements in outcomes, patients still succumb to the disease due to the development of resistance. Further complicating the situation is lack of a well-defined treatment sequence and potential for cross-resistance between therapies. We have developed several models representing CRPC with acquired therapeutic resistance. Here, we utilized these models to assess putative cross-resistance between treatments. We find that resistance to enzalutamide induces resistance to abiraterone and vice versa, but resistance to neither alters sensitivity to taxanes. Acquired resistance to docetaxel induces cross-resistance to cabazitaxel but not to enzalutamide or abiraterone. Correlating responses with known mechanisms of resistance indicates that AR variants are associated with resistance to NGATs, whereas the membrane efflux protein ABCB1 is associated with taxane resistance. Mechanistic studies show that AR variant-7 (AR-v7) is involved in NGAT resistance but not resistance to taxanes. Our findings suggest the existence of intra cross-resistance within a drug class (i.e., within NGATs or within taxanes), whereas inter cross-resistance between drug classes does not develop. Furthermore, our data suggest that resistance mechanisms differ between drug classes. These results may have clinical implications by showing that treatments of one class can be sequenced with those of another, but caution should be taken when sequencing similar classed drugs. In addition, the development and use of biomarkers indicating resistance will improve patient stratification for treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research