Intestinal Microbiota Remodeling Protects Mice from Western Diet-Induced Brain Inflammation and Cognitive Decline

Prasant Kumar Jena, Tahereh Setayesh, Lili Sheng, Jacopo Di Lucente, Lee Way Jin, Yu Jui Yvonne Wan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

It has been shown that the Western diet (WD) induces systemic inflammation and cognitive decline. Moreover, probiotic supplementation and antibiotic treatment reduce diet-induced hepatic inflammation. The current study examines whether shaping the gut microbes by Bifidobacterium infantis (B. infantis) supplementation and antibiotic treatment reduce diet-induced brain inflammation and improve neuroplasticity. Furthermore, the significance of bile acid (BA) signaling in regulating brain inflammation was studied. Mice were fed a control diet (CD) or WD for seven months. B. infantis was supplemented to WD-fed mice to study brain inflammation, lipid, metabolomes, and neuroplasticity measured by long-term potentiation (LTP). Broad-spectrum coverage antibiotics and cholestyramine treatments were performed to study the impact of WD-associated gut microbes and BA in brain inflammation. Probiotic B. infantis supplementation inhibited diet-induced brain inflammation by reducing IL6, TNFα, and CD11b levels. B. infantis improved LTP and increased brain PSD95 and BDNF levels, which were reduced due to WD intake. Additionally, B. infantis reduced cecal cholesterol, brain ceramide and enhanced saturated fatty acids. Moreover, antibiotic treatment, as well as cholestyramine, diminished WD-induced brain inflammatory signaling. Our findings support the theory that intestinal microbiota remodeling by B. infantis reduces brain inflammation, activates BA receptor signaling, and improves neuroplasticity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number504
JournalCells
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bifidobacterium infantis
  • Bile acid receptor
  • Brain inflammation
  • Gut microbiota
  • Metabolomics
  • Neuroplasticity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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