Background: Interstitial lung abnormality (ILA) is found in 5–10% of the general population and is associated with increased mortality risk. Risk factors for ILA, including advanced age and smoking history also increase the risk for aortic stenosis (AS). Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become an increasingly utilized intervention for patients with severe AS, and requires a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest to assess aortic valve dimensions. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and clinical significance of ILA on HRCT performed in patients referred for TAVR. Methods: Consecutive pre-TAVR HRCTs performed over a 5-year period were reviewed. ILA was defined as bilateral, nondependent reticular opacities. All-cause mortality among TAVR recipients was compared between ILA cases and non-ILA controls matched 2:1 by age and gender using Cox proportional hazards regression and the Kaplan Meier estimator. Results: Of 623 HRCTs screened, ILA was detected in 92 (14.7%), including 62 patients that underwent TAVR. Among ILA cases, 17 (27.4%) had a typical or probable usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, suggesting a diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Survival was worse in ILA cases compared to non-ILA controls (p = 0.008) and ILA was an independent predictor of mortality after multivariable adjustment (HR 3.29, 95% CI 1.34–8.08; p = 0.009). Conclusions: ILA is a common finding among patients with severe AS and is associated with increased mortality in those undergoing TAVR. Further research is needed to elucidate the biology underpinning this observation and determine whether ILA evaluation and risk stratification modulates this mortality risk.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine