Interactive Progressive Visualization with Space-Time Error Control

Steffen Frey, Filip Sadlo, Kwan-Liu Ma, Thomas Ertl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


We present a novel scheme for progressive rendering in interactive visualization. Static settings with respect to a certain image quality or frame rate are inherently incapable of delivering both high frame rates for rapid changes and high image quality for detailed investigation. Our novel technique flexibly adapts by steering the visualization process in three major degrees of freedom: when to terminate the refinement of a frame in the background and start a new one, when to display a frame currently computed, and how much resources to consume. We base these decisions on the correlation of the errors due to insufficient sampling and response delay, which we estimate separately using fast yet expressive heuristics. To automate the configuration of the steering behavior, we employ offline video quality analysis. We provide an efficient implementation of our scheme for the application of volume raycasting, featuring integrated GPU-accelerated image reconstruction and error estimation. Our implementation performs an integral handling of the changes due to camera transforms, transfer function adaptations, as well as the progression of the data to in time. Finally, the overall technique is evaluated with an expert study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2346319
Pages (from-to)2397-2406
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 31 2014


  • Error-based frame control
  • Index terms-progressive visualization
  • Interactive volume raycasting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Signal Processing
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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