Interactions with humans impose time constraints on urban-dwelling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Stefano S.K. Kaburu, Brianne Beisner, Krishna N. Balasubramaniam, Pascal R. Marty, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Lalit Mohan, Sandeep K. Rattan, Małgorzata E. Arlet, Edward R. Atwill, Brenda Mccowan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Time is a valuable but limited resource, and animals' survival depends on their ability to carefully manage the amount of time they allocate to each daily activity. While existing research has examined the ecological factors affecting animals' activity budgets, the impact of anthropogenic factors on urban-dwelling animals' time budgets remains understudied. Here we collected data through focal animal sampling from three groups of rhesus macaques in Northern India to examine whether interactions with humans decrease macaques' resting and social time (time constraints hypothesis), or whether, by contrast, foraging on anthropogenic food, that is potentially high in calories, leads macaques to spend more time resting and in social interactions (free time hypothesis). We found that macaques who interacted more frequently with people spent significantly less time resting and grooming, supporting the time constraints hypothesis. We argue that these time constraints are likely caused by the unpredictability of human behaviour.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1255-1282
Number of pages28
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Ethnoprimatology
  • Monitoring
  • Resting
  • Social behaviour
  • Urban wildlife

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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