Integrins α2β1, αXβ2, and αVβ3 have been implicated in rotavirus cell attachment and entry. The virus spike protein VP4 contains the α2β1 ligand sequence DGE at amino acid positions 308 to 310, and the outer capsid protein VP7 contains the αXβ2 ligand sequence GPR. To determine the viral proteins and sequences involved and to define the roles of α2β1, αXβ2, and αVβ3, we analyzed the ability of rotaviruses and their reassortants to use these integrins for cell binding and infection and the effect of peptides DGEA and GPRP on these events. Many laboratory-adapted human, monkey, and bovine viruses used integrins, whereas all porcine viruses were integrin independent. The integrin-using rotavirus strains each interacted with all three integrins. Integrin usage related to VP4 serotype independently of sialic acid usage. Analysis of rotavirus reassortants and assays of virus binding and infectivity in integrin-transfected cells showed that VP4 bound α2β1, and VP7 interacted with αXβ2 and αVβ3 at a postbinding stage. DGEA inhibited rotavirus binding to α2β1 and infectivity, whereas GPRP binding to αXβ2 inhibited infectivity but not binding. The truncated VP5* subunit of VP4, expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein, bound the expressed α2 I domain. Alanine mutagenesis of D308 and G309 in VP5* eliminated VP5* binding to the α2 I domain. In a novel process, integrin-using viruses bind the α2 I domain of α2β1 via DGE in VP4 and interact with αXβ2 (via GPR) and αVβ3 by using VP7 to facilitate cell entry and infection.
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