Injury death excesses in smokers: A 1990-95 United States national cohort study

Bruce N. Leistikow, D. C. Martin, S. J. Samuels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives - Assess injury death relative risks (RR), dose-response, and attributable fractions for current cigarette smokers (smokers) in a recent representative sample of the United States population without and with adjustment for (a) demographic and (b) additional behavioral risk factors. Setting - United States. Methods - National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) adult (ages 18+ years) interviewees from 1990 or 1991 were followed through 1995. Referents had never smoked a total of 100 cigarettes. Relative risks were estimated with Stata software's Cox proportional hazard regressions, using NHIS final weights and primary sampling units. The resulting RR and published data were used to estimate population smoking attributable fractions of injury deaths in the United States. Results - The crude, age-race-gender adjusted, and fully (demographic plus educational attainment, marital status, alcohol use level, and seat belt use) adjusted RRs for injury death in smokers were 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 to 2.66), 1.60 (CI 1.12 to 2.29), and 1.42 (CI 0.99 to 2.05) respectively. Those RRs correspond to United States injury death smoking attributable fractions of 18%, 13%, and 9%, respectively. Those smoker/injury death RRs each showed a significant dose response relationship (p<0.030). Smokers' unadjusted unintentional injury, motor vehicle crash, and suicide RRs were 1.87 (CI 1.22 to 2.86), 2.14 (CI 1.12 to 4.11), and 2.17 (CI 1.02 to 4.62), respectively. Conclusions - Smokers in the United States have significant dose-response excesses of injury death, independent of age, race, gender, alcohol use, seat belt use, education, and marital status. This supports earlier studies suggesting that smoking may be a leading contributor to injuries and injury may be a leading burden from smoking, both nationally and globally.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)277-280
Number of pages4
JournalInjury Prevention
Volume6
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2000

Fingerprint

Cohort Studies
Wounds and Injuries
Confidence Intervals
Smoking
Seat Belts
Marital Status
Health Surveys
Tobacco Products
Alcohols
Demography
Interviews
Motor Vehicles
Suicide
Population
Software
Education
Weights and Measures

Keywords

  • Cohort
  • Mortality
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Injury death excesses in smokers : A 1990-95 United States national cohort study. / Leistikow, Bruce N.; Martin, D. C.; Samuels, S. J.

In: Injury Prevention, Vol. 6, No. 4, 12.2000, p. 277-280.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Leistikow, Bruce N. ; Martin, D. C. ; Samuels, S. J. / Injury death excesses in smokers : A 1990-95 United States national cohort study. In: Injury Prevention. 2000 ; Vol. 6, No. 4. pp. 277-280.
@article{761bc8d2ede24a6c9f4c221575064de0,
title = "Injury death excesses in smokers: A 1990-95 United States national cohort study",
abstract = "Objectives - Assess injury death relative risks (RR), dose-response, and attributable fractions for current cigarette smokers (smokers) in a recent representative sample of the United States population without and with adjustment for (a) demographic and (b) additional behavioral risk factors. Setting - United States. Methods - National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) adult (ages 18+ years) interviewees from 1990 or 1991 were followed through 1995. Referents had never smoked a total of 100 cigarettes. Relative risks were estimated with Stata software's Cox proportional hazard regressions, using NHIS final weights and primary sampling units. The resulting RR and published data were used to estimate population smoking attributable fractions of injury deaths in the United States. Results - The crude, age-race-gender adjusted, and fully (demographic plus educational attainment, marital status, alcohol use level, and seat belt use) adjusted RRs for injury death in smokers were 1.86 (95{\%} confidence interval (CI) 1.30 to 2.66), 1.60 (CI 1.12 to 2.29), and 1.42 (CI 0.99 to 2.05) respectively. Those RRs correspond to United States injury death smoking attributable fractions of 18{\%}, 13{\%}, and 9{\%}, respectively. Those smoker/injury death RRs each showed a significant dose response relationship (p<0.030). Smokers' unadjusted unintentional injury, motor vehicle crash, and suicide RRs were 1.87 (CI 1.22 to 2.86), 2.14 (CI 1.12 to 4.11), and 2.17 (CI 1.02 to 4.62), respectively. Conclusions - Smokers in the United States have significant dose-response excesses of injury death, independent of age, race, gender, alcohol use, seat belt use, education, and marital status. This supports earlier studies suggesting that smoking may be a leading contributor to injuries and injury may be a leading burden from smoking, both nationally and globally.",
keywords = "Cohort, Mortality, Smoking",
author = "Leistikow, {Bruce N.} and Martin, {D. C.} and Samuels, {S. J.}",
year = "2000",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1136/ip.6.4.277",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "6",
pages = "277--280",
journal = "Injury Prevention",
issn = "1353-8047",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Injury death excesses in smokers

T2 - A 1990-95 United States national cohort study

AU - Leistikow, Bruce N.

AU - Martin, D. C.

AU - Samuels, S. J.

PY - 2000/12

Y1 - 2000/12

N2 - Objectives - Assess injury death relative risks (RR), dose-response, and attributable fractions for current cigarette smokers (smokers) in a recent representative sample of the United States population without and with adjustment for (a) demographic and (b) additional behavioral risk factors. Setting - United States. Methods - National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) adult (ages 18+ years) interviewees from 1990 or 1991 were followed through 1995. Referents had never smoked a total of 100 cigarettes. Relative risks were estimated with Stata software's Cox proportional hazard regressions, using NHIS final weights and primary sampling units. The resulting RR and published data were used to estimate population smoking attributable fractions of injury deaths in the United States. Results - The crude, age-race-gender adjusted, and fully (demographic plus educational attainment, marital status, alcohol use level, and seat belt use) adjusted RRs for injury death in smokers were 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 to 2.66), 1.60 (CI 1.12 to 2.29), and 1.42 (CI 0.99 to 2.05) respectively. Those RRs correspond to United States injury death smoking attributable fractions of 18%, 13%, and 9%, respectively. Those smoker/injury death RRs each showed a significant dose response relationship (p<0.030). Smokers' unadjusted unintentional injury, motor vehicle crash, and suicide RRs were 1.87 (CI 1.22 to 2.86), 2.14 (CI 1.12 to 4.11), and 2.17 (CI 1.02 to 4.62), respectively. Conclusions - Smokers in the United States have significant dose-response excesses of injury death, independent of age, race, gender, alcohol use, seat belt use, education, and marital status. This supports earlier studies suggesting that smoking may be a leading contributor to injuries and injury may be a leading burden from smoking, both nationally and globally.

AB - Objectives - Assess injury death relative risks (RR), dose-response, and attributable fractions for current cigarette smokers (smokers) in a recent representative sample of the United States population without and with adjustment for (a) demographic and (b) additional behavioral risk factors. Setting - United States. Methods - National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) adult (ages 18+ years) interviewees from 1990 or 1991 were followed through 1995. Referents had never smoked a total of 100 cigarettes. Relative risks were estimated with Stata software's Cox proportional hazard regressions, using NHIS final weights and primary sampling units. The resulting RR and published data were used to estimate population smoking attributable fractions of injury deaths in the United States. Results - The crude, age-race-gender adjusted, and fully (demographic plus educational attainment, marital status, alcohol use level, and seat belt use) adjusted RRs for injury death in smokers were 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 to 2.66), 1.60 (CI 1.12 to 2.29), and 1.42 (CI 0.99 to 2.05) respectively. Those RRs correspond to United States injury death smoking attributable fractions of 18%, 13%, and 9%, respectively. Those smoker/injury death RRs each showed a significant dose response relationship (p<0.030). Smokers' unadjusted unintentional injury, motor vehicle crash, and suicide RRs were 1.87 (CI 1.22 to 2.86), 2.14 (CI 1.12 to 4.11), and 2.17 (CI 1.02 to 4.62), respectively. Conclusions - Smokers in the United States have significant dose-response excesses of injury death, independent of age, race, gender, alcohol use, seat belt use, education, and marital status. This supports earlier studies suggesting that smoking may be a leading contributor to injuries and injury may be a leading burden from smoking, both nationally and globally.

KW - Cohort

KW - Mortality

KW - Smoking

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034540772&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034540772&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1136/ip.6.4.277

DO - 10.1136/ip.6.4.277

M3 - Article

C2 - 11144627

AN - SCOPUS:0034540772

VL - 6

SP - 277

EP - 280

JO - Injury Prevention

JF - Injury Prevention

SN - 1353-8047

IS - 4

ER -