Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome

Robert H. Waterston, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Ewan Birney, Jane Rogers, Josep F. Abril, Pankaj Agarwal, Richa Agarwala, Rachel Ainscough, Marina Alexandersson, Peter An, Stylianos E. Antonarakis, John Attwood, Robert Baertsch, Jonathon Bailey, Karen Barlow, Stephan Beck, Eric Berry, Bruce Birren, Toby Bloom, Peer BorkMarc Botcherby, Nicolas Bray, Michael R. Brent, Daniel G. Brown, Stephen D. Brown, Carol Bult, John Burton, Jonathan Butler, Robert D. Campbell, Piero Carninci, Simon Cawley, Francesca Chiaromonte, Asif T. Chinwalla, Deanna M. Church, Michele Clamp, Christopher Clee, Francis S. Collins, Lisa L. Cook, Richard R. Copley, Alan Coulson, Olivier Couronne, James Cuff, Val Curwen, Tim Cutts, Mark Daly, Robert David, Joy Davies, Kimberly D. Delehaunty, Justin Deri, Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis, Colin Dewey, Nicholas J. Dickens, Mark Diekhans, Sheila Dodge, Inna Dubchak, Diane M. Dunn, Sean R. Eddy, Laura Elnitski, Richard D. Emes, Pallavi Eswara, Eduardo Eyras, Adam Felsenfeld, Ginger A. Fewell, Paul Flicek, Karen Foley, Wayne N. Frankel, Lucinda A. Fulton, Robert S. Fulton, Terrence S. Furey, Diane Gage, Richard A. Gibbs, Gustavo Glusman, Sante Gnerre, Nick Goldman, Leo Goodstadt, Darren Grafham, Tina A. Graves, Eric D. Green, Simon Gregory, Roderic Guigó, Mark Guyer, Ross C. Hardison, David Haussler, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Deana W. LaHillier, Angela Hinrichs, Wratko Hlavina, Timothy Holzer, Fan Hsu, Axin Hua, Tim Hubbard, Adrienne Hunt, Ian Jackson, David B. Jaffe, L. Steven Johnson, Matthew Jones, Thomas A. Jones, Ann Joy, Michael Kamal, Elinor K. Karlsson, Donna Karolchik, Arkadiusz Kasprzyk, Jun Kawai, Evan Keibler, Cristyn Kells, W. James Kent, Andrew Kirby, Diana L. Kolbe, Ian F Korf, Raju S. Kucherlapati, Edward J. Kulbokas, David Kulp, Tom Landers, J. P. Leger, Steven Leonard, Ivica Letunic, Rosie Levine, Jia Li, Ming Li, Christine Lloyd, Susan Lucas, Bin Ma, Donna R. Maglott, Elaine R. Mardis, Lucy Matthews, Evan Mauceli, John H. Mayer, Megan McCarthy, W. Richard McCombie, Stuart McLaren, Kirsten McLay, John Douglas Mcpherson, Jim Meldrim, Beverley Meredith, Jill P. Mesirov, Webb Miller, Tracie L. Miner, Emmanuel Mongin, Kate T. Montgomery, Michael Morgan, Richard Mott, James C. Mullikin, Donna M. Muzny, William E. Nash, Joanne O. Nelson, Michael N. Nhan, Robert Nicol, Zemin Ning, Chad Nusbaum, Michael J. O'Connor, Yasushi Okazaki, Karen Oliver, Emma Overton-Larty, Lior Pachter, Genís Parra, Kymberlie H. Pepin, Jane Peterson, Pavel Pevzner, Robert Plumb, Craig S. Pohl, Alex Poliakov, Tracy C. Ponce, Chris P. Ponting, Simon Potter, Michael Quail, Alexandre Reymond, Bruce A. Roe, Krishna M. Roskin, Edward M. Rubin, Alistair G. Rust, Ralph Santos, Victor Sapojnikov, Brian Schultz, Jorg Schultz, Matthias S. Schwartz, Scott Schwartz, Carol Scott, Steven Seaman, Steve Searle, Ted Sharpe, Andrew Sheridan, Ratna Shownkeen, Sarah Sims, Jonathan B. Singer, Guy Slater, Arian Smit, Douglas R. Smith, Brian Spencer, Arne Stabenau, Nicole Stange-Thomann, Charles Sugnet, Mikita Suyama, Glenn Tesler, Johanna Thompson, David Torrents, Evanne Trevaskis, John Tromp, Catherine Ucla, Abel Ureta-Vidal, Jade P. Vinson, Andrew C. von Niederhausern, Claire M. Wade, Melanie Wall, Ryan J. Weber, Robert B. Weiss, Michael C. Wendl, Anthony P. West, Kris Wetterstrand, Raymond Wheeler, Simon Whelan, Jamey Wierzbowski, David Willey, Sophie Williams, Richard K. Wilson, Eitan Winter, Kim C. Worley, Dudley Wyman, Shan Yang, Shiaw Pyng Yang, Evgeny M. Zdobnov, Michael C. Zody, Eric S. Lander

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Abstract

The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)520-562
Number of pages43
JournalNature
Volume420
Issue number6915
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 5 2002
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

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    Waterston, R. H., Lindblad-Toh, K., Birney, E., Rogers, J., Abril, J. F., Agarwal, P., Agarwala, R., Ainscough, R., Alexandersson, M., An, P., Antonarakis, S. E., Attwood, J., Baertsch, R., Bailey, J., Barlow, K., Beck, S., Berry, E., Birren, B., Bloom, T., ... Lander, E. S. (2002). Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome. Nature, 420(6915), 520-562. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01262