Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase does not protect against endotoxin-mediated hepatic inflammation

Kimberly L. Fife, YingMei Liu, Kara R. Schmelzer, Hsing Ju Tsai, In Hae Kim, Christophe Morisseau, Bruce D. Hammock, Deanna L. Kroetz

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Abstract

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are derived from cytochrome P450-catalyzed epoxygenation of arachidonic acid and have emerged as important mediators of numerous biological effects. The major elimination pathway for EETs is through soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH)-catalyzed metabolism to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). Based on previous studies showing that EETs have anti-inflammatory effects, we hypothesized that chronic inhibition of sEH would attenuate a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in vivo. Continuous dosing of the sEH inhibitors 12-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA), a polyethylene glycol ester of AUDA, and 1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(5-(2- (2-ethoxyethoxy)ethoxy)-pentyl)urea resulted in robust exposure to the inhibitor and target engagement, as evidenced by significant increases in plasma EET/DHET ratios following 6 days of inhibitor treatment. However, sEH inhibitor treatment was not associated with an attenuation of LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression in the liver, and AUDA did not protect from LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration. Furthermore, Ephx2-/- mice that lack sEH expression and have significantly increased plasma EET/DHET ratios were not protected from LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression or neutrophil accumulation in the liver. LPS did have an effect on sEH expression and function, as evident from a significant down-regulation of Ephx2 mRNA and a significant shift in plasma EET/DHET ratios 4 h after LPS treatment. In conclusion, there was no evidence that increasing EET levels in vivo could modulate an LPS-induced inflammatory response in the liver. However, LPS did have significant effects on plasma eicosanoid levels and hepatic Ephx2 expression, suggesting that in vivo EET levels are modulated in response to an inflammatory signal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)707-715
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Volume327
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2008

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Molecular Medicine

Cite this

Fife, K. L., Liu, Y., Schmelzer, K. R., Tsai, H. J., Kim, I. H., Morisseau, C., Hammock, B. D., & Kroetz, D. L. (2008). Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase does not protect against endotoxin-mediated hepatic inflammation. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 327(3), 707-715. https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.108.142398