Inhibition of constitutively active Stat3 reverses enzalutamide resistance in LNCaP derivative prostate cancer cells

Chengfei Liu, Yezi Zhu, Wei Lou, Yuanyuan Cui, Christopher P Evans, Allen C Gao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PURPOSE Use of enzalutamide has improved the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However, resistance to enzalutamide can develop frequently in initial responders. This study aimed to test whether overexpression of IL-6 and constitutive activation of Stat3 in prostate cancer cells increase resistance to enzalutamide. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to enzalutamide was tested using cell growth assays and clonogenic assays. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting were performed to detect expression levels of IL-6, c-Myc, survivin, and AR. Expression of Stat3 was downregulated using siRNA specific to Stat3. ChIP assay was performed to examine recruitment of AR to the PSA promoter. RESULTS Prostate cancer cells expressing autocrine IL-6 are resistant to enzalutamide and autocrine IL-6 leads to constitutive activation of Stat3 and its target genes. Down regulation of Stat3 led to an increase in sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to enzalutamide. Overexpression of constitutively active Stat3 in prostate cancer cells induced resistance to enzalutamide treatment. Constitutively active Stat3 also enhanced the recruitment of AR to PSA promoter which could not be disrupted by enzalutamide. The Stat3 inhibitor AG490 reversed enzalutamide resistance in prostate cancer cells, while combination treatment with enzalutamide and AG490 significantly inhibited cell growth and induced cell apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that the autocrine IL-6 pathway induces enzalutamide resistance in prostate cancer cells via the constitutive activation of Stat3. Co-targeting IL6-Stat3 pathway with enzalutamide may be utilized for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Prostate 74:201-209, 2014.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-209
Number of pages9
JournalProstate
Volume74
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2014

Fingerprint

Prostatic Neoplasms
Interleukin-6
MDV 3100
Down-Regulation
Colony-Forming Units Assay
Therapeutics
Growth
Small Interfering RNA
Reverse Transcription
Prostate
Western Blotting
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Apoptosis
Polymerase Chain Reaction

Keywords

  • enzalutamide
  • Interleukin-6
  • prostate cancer
  • Stat3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology
  • Oncology

Cite this

Inhibition of constitutively active Stat3 reverses enzalutamide resistance in LNCaP derivative prostate cancer cells. / Liu, Chengfei; Zhu, Yezi; Lou, Wei; Cui, Yuanyuan; Evans, Christopher P; Gao, Allen C.

In: Prostate, Vol. 74, No. 2, 02.2014, p. 201-209.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "PURPOSE Use of enzalutamide has improved the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However, resistance to enzalutamide can develop frequently in initial responders. This study aimed to test whether overexpression of IL-6 and constitutive activation of Stat3 in prostate cancer cells increase resistance to enzalutamide. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to enzalutamide was tested using cell growth assays and clonogenic assays. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting were performed to detect expression levels of IL-6, c-Myc, survivin, and AR. Expression of Stat3 was downregulated using siRNA specific to Stat3. ChIP assay was performed to examine recruitment of AR to the PSA promoter. RESULTS Prostate cancer cells expressing autocrine IL-6 are resistant to enzalutamide and autocrine IL-6 leads to constitutive activation of Stat3 and its target genes. Down regulation of Stat3 led to an increase in sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to enzalutamide. Overexpression of constitutively active Stat3 in prostate cancer cells induced resistance to enzalutamide treatment. Constitutively active Stat3 also enhanced the recruitment of AR to PSA promoter which could not be disrupted by enzalutamide. The Stat3 inhibitor AG490 reversed enzalutamide resistance in prostate cancer cells, while combination treatment with enzalutamide and AG490 significantly inhibited cell growth and induced cell apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that the autocrine IL-6 pathway induces enzalutamide resistance in prostate cancer cells via the constitutive activation of Stat3. Co-targeting IL6-Stat3 pathway with enzalutamide may be utilized for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Prostate 74:201-209, 2014.",
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AU - Liu, Chengfei

AU - Zhu, Yezi

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AU - Evans, Christopher P

AU - Gao, Allen C

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N2 - PURPOSE Use of enzalutamide has improved the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However, resistance to enzalutamide can develop frequently in initial responders. This study aimed to test whether overexpression of IL-6 and constitutive activation of Stat3 in prostate cancer cells increase resistance to enzalutamide. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to enzalutamide was tested using cell growth assays and clonogenic assays. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting were performed to detect expression levels of IL-6, c-Myc, survivin, and AR. Expression of Stat3 was downregulated using siRNA specific to Stat3. ChIP assay was performed to examine recruitment of AR to the PSA promoter. RESULTS Prostate cancer cells expressing autocrine IL-6 are resistant to enzalutamide and autocrine IL-6 leads to constitutive activation of Stat3 and its target genes. Down regulation of Stat3 led to an increase in sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to enzalutamide. Overexpression of constitutively active Stat3 in prostate cancer cells induced resistance to enzalutamide treatment. Constitutively active Stat3 also enhanced the recruitment of AR to PSA promoter which could not be disrupted by enzalutamide. The Stat3 inhibitor AG490 reversed enzalutamide resistance in prostate cancer cells, while combination treatment with enzalutamide and AG490 significantly inhibited cell growth and induced cell apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that the autocrine IL-6 pathway induces enzalutamide resistance in prostate cancer cells via the constitutive activation of Stat3. Co-targeting IL6-Stat3 pathway with enzalutamide may be utilized for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Prostate 74:201-209, 2014.

AB - PURPOSE Use of enzalutamide has improved the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However, resistance to enzalutamide can develop frequently in initial responders. This study aimed to test whether overexpression of IL-6 and constitutive activation of Stat3 in prostate cancer cells increase resistance to enzalutamide. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to enzalutamide was tested using cell growth assays and clonogenic assays. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting were performed to detect expression levels of IL-6, c-Myc, survivin, and AR. Expression of Stat3 was downregulated using siRNA specific to Stat3. ChIP assay was performed to examine recruitment of AR to the PSA promoter. RESULTS Prostate cancer cells expressing autocrine IL-6 are resistant to enzalutamide and autocrine IL-6 leads to constitutive activation of Stat3 and its target genes. Down regulation of Stat3 led to an increase in sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to enzalutamide. Overexpression of constitutively active Stat3 in prostate cancer cells induced resistance to enzalutamide treatment. Constitutively active Stat3 also enhanced the recruitment of AR to PSA promoter which could not be disrupted by enzalutamide. The Stat3 inhibitor AG490 reversed enzalutamide resistance in prostate cancer cells, while combination treatment with enzalutamide and AG490 significantly inhibited cell growth and induced cell apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that the autocrine IL-6 pathway induces enzalutamide resistance in prostate cancer cells via the constitutive activation of Stat3. Co-targeting IL6-Stat3 pathway with enzalutamide may be utilized for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Prostate 74:201-209, 2014.

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