Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity by flavan-3-ols and procyanidins

Lucas Actis-Goretta, Javier I. Ottaviani, Carl L Keen, Cesar G. Fraga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

198 Scopus citations


It was determined that flavan-3-ols and procyanidins have an inhibitory effect on angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity, and the effect was dependent on the number of epicatechin units forming the procyanidin. The inhibition by flavan-3-ols and procyanidins was competitive with the two substrates assayed: N-hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) and N-[3-(2-furyl)acryloyl]-L-phenylalanylglycylglycine (FAPGG). Tetramer and hexamer fractions were the more potent inhibitors, showing Ki of 5.6 and 4.7 μM, respectively. As ACE is a membrane protein, the interaction of flavanols and procyanidins with the enzyme could be related to the number of hydroxyl groups on the procyanidins, which determine their capacity to be adsorbed on the membrane surface.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)597-600
Number of pages4
JournalFEBS Letters
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 18 2003


  • Cocoa
  • Flavonoid
  • Hypertension
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Biophysics
  • Molecular Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity by flavan-3-ols and procyanidins'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this