Infundibular Pulmonic Stenosis in a Moluccan Cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis)

Graham Zoller, David Guzman, Noémie Summa, Krista A. Keller, Sarah J. Silverman, Joshua A Stern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


A 31-year-old female Moluccan cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) was examined for intermittent foot clenching of 4 months' duration. Physical examination revealed feather-destructive behavior and clinical findings compatible with hypovitaminosis A. Neurologic examination was unremarkable. Results of radiographs, hematologic testing, plasma biochemical analyses, and measurement of lead and trace element blood concentrations were unremarkable, except for degenerative joint disease of several thoracic intervertebral joints and a low blood copper concentration. Increased dietary copper was recommended. After a 6-month period without clinical signs, the bird presented again for episodes of foot weakness. Radiographic review was suggestive of mild pulmonary trunk enlargement. Echocardiography revealed mild mitral and aortic regurgitation, dilation of the ascending aorta, and a dilated right ventricle with turbulent right ventricular outflow. An electrocardiogram revealed a sinus rhythm and normal-appearing complexes. Nonselective fluoroscopic angiography was performed 3 weeks later because of persistent episodes of foot clenching and weakness. Infundibular pulmonic stenosis, poststenotic dilation of the pulmonic trunk, and proximal main pulmonary arteries were identified, as well as a mild narrowing of the descending aorta compatible with aortic stenosis. The bird was discharged without medication but with dietary recommendations and experienced 2 clenching episodes in the days after the last visit. No recurrence of clinical signs has been reported over the 18-month follow-up period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of infundibular pulmonic stenosis in a bird. This case illustrates the application of basic and advanced diagnostic imaging modalities in evaluating cardiac disease in birds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53-61
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Avian
  • Bird
  • Cacatua moluccensis
  • Cardiac outflow obstruction
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Foot clenching
  • Moluccan cockatoo
  • Subvalvular disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Small Animals


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