Influence of race/ethnicity, body mass index, and proximity of menopause on menstrual cycle patterns in the menopausal transition

The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

Pangaja Paramsothy, Siobán D. Harlow, Michael R. Elliott, Matheos Yosef, Lynda D. Lisabeth, Gail A. Greendale, Ellen B Gold, Sybil L. Crawford, John F. Randolph

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have evaluated factors that influence menstrual cycle length (MCL) during the menopausal transition (MT), a life stage during which very long cycles become more likely to occur. The objective of this article was to assess how body mass index and race/ethnicity - factors associated with MCL in young women - influence MCL during the MT. METHODS: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation menstrual calendar substudy data of African-American, white, Chinese, and Japanese women were available for three sites (southeastern Michigan, Los Angeles, and northern California). Self-recorded monthly menstrual calendars with end-of-the-month questions on hormone therapy use and smoking were collected from 1996 to 2006. Height and weight were measured at annual study visits. We used quantile regression to model MCL at the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles with bootstrap sampling to construct 95% CIs. Models evaluated MCL with time indexed to the start of the MT (n = 963) and to the final menstrual period (n = 431). RESULTS: During the MT, increases in MCL occurred mostly at the right tail of the distribution, reflecting a lengthening of long menstrual cycles, not of the median MCL. After adjustment for smoking, education, physical activity, and time, Chinese and Japanese women had 1 day to 6 days longer MCLs compared with white women. Obese women had 1 day to 5 days longer MCLs compared with nonobese women. CONCLUSIONS: As occurs in younger women, menstrual characteristics during the MT are influenced by race/ethnicity and obesity. The long menstrual cycles characteristic of the MT are longer in obese women and in Chinese and Japanese women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)159-165
Number of pages7
JournalMenopause
Volume22
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 6 2015

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Women's Health
Menstrual Cycle
Menopause
Body Mass Index
Smoking
Los Angeles
African Americans
Obesity
Hormones
Exercise
Education
Weights and Measures

Keywords

  • Body mass index
  • Chinese
  • Japanese
  • Menopause
  • Menstrual cycle
  • Race/ethnicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

Influence of race/ethnicity, body mass index, and proximity of menopause on menstrual cycle patterns in the menopausal transition : The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. / Paramsothy, Pangaja; Harlow, Siobán D.; Elliott, Michael R.; Yosef, Matheos; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Greendale, Gail A.; Gold, Ellen B; Crawford, Sybil L.; Randolph, John F.

In: Menopause, Vol. 22, No. 2, 06.02.2015, p. 159-165.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Paramsothy, Pangaja ; Harlow, Siobán D. ; Elliott, Michael R. ; Yosef, Matheos ; Lisabeth, Lynda D. ; Greendale, Gail A. ; Gold, Ellen B ; Crawford, Sybil L. ; Randolph, John F. / Influence of race/ethnicity, body mass index, and proximity of menopause on menstrual cycle patterns in the menopausal transition : The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. In: Menopause. 2015 ; Vol. 22, No. 2. pp. 159-165.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVE: Few studies have evaluated factors that influence menstrual cycle length (MCL) during the menopausal transition (MT), a life stage during which very long cycles become more likely to occur. The objective of this article was to assess how body mass index and race/ethnicity - factors associated with MCL in young women - influence MCL during the MT. METHODS: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation menstrual calendar substudy data of African-American, white, Chinese, and Japanese women were available for three sites (southeastern Michigan, Los Angeles, and northern California). Self-recorded monthly menstrual calendars with end-of-the-month questions on hormone therapy use and smoking were collected from 1996 to 2006. Height and weight were measured at annual study visits. We used quantile regression to model MCL at the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles with bootstrap sampling to construct 95{\%} CIs. Models evaluated MCL with time indexed to the start of the MT (n = 963) and to the final menstrual period (n = 431). RESULTS: During the MT, increases in MCL occurred mostly at the right tail of the distribution, reflecting a lengthening of long menstrual cycles, not of the median MCL. After adjustment for smoking, education, physical activity, and time, Chinese and Japanese women had 1 day to 6 days longer MCLs compared with white women. Obese women had 1 day to 5 days longer MCLs compared with nonobese women. CONCLUSIONS: As occurs in younger women, menstrual characteristics during the MT are influenced by race/ethnicity and obesity. The long menstrual cycles characteristic of the MT are longer in obese women and in Chinese and Japanese women.",
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T2 - The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

AU - Paramsothy, Pangaja

AU - Harlow, Siobán D.

AU - Elliott, Michael R.

AU - Yosef, Matheos

AU - Lisabeth, Lynda D.

AU - Greendale, Gail A.

AU - Gold, Ellen B

AU - Crawford, Sybil L.

AU - Randolph, John F.

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N2 - OBJECTIVE: Few studies have evaluated factors that influence menstrual cycle length (MCL) during the menopausal transition (MT), a life stage during which very long cycles become more likely to occur. The objective of this article was to assess how body mass index and race/ethnicity - factors associated with MCL in young women - influence MCL during the MT. METHODS: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation menstrual calendar substudy data of African-American, white, Chinese, and Japanese women were available for three sites (southeastern Michigan, Los Angeles, and northern California). Self-recorded monthly menstrual calendars with end-of-the-month questions on hormone therapy use and smoking were collected from 1996 to 2006. Height and weight were measured at annual study visits. We used quantile regression to model MCL at the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles with bootstrap sampling to construct 95% CIs. Models evaluated MCL with time indexed to the start of the MT (n = 963) and to the final menstrual period (n = 431). RESULTS: During the MT, increases in MCL occurred mostly at the right tail of the distribution, reflecting a lengthening of long menstrual cycles, not of the median MCL. After adjustment for smoking, education, physical activity, and time, Chinese and Japanese women had 1 day to 6 days longer MCLs compared with white women. Obese women had 1 day to 5 days longer MCLs compared with nonobese women. CONCLUSIONS: As occurs in younger women, menstrual characteristics during the MT are influenced by race/ethnicity and obesity. The long menstrual cycles characteristic of the MT are longer in obese women and in Chinese and Japanese women.

AB - OBJECTIVE: Few studies have evaluated factors that influence menstrual cycle length (MCL) during the menopausal transition (MT), a life stage during which very long cycles become more likely to occur. The objective of this article was to assess how body mass index and race/ethnicity - factors associated with MCL in young women - influence MCL during the MT. METHODS: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation menstrual calendar substudy data of African-American, white, Chinese, and Japanese women were available for three sites (southeastern Michigan, Los Angeles, and northern California). Self-recorded monthly menstrual calendars with end-of-the-month questions on hormone therapy use and smoking were collected from 1996 to 2006. Height and weight were measured at annual study visits. We used quantile regression to model MCL at the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles with bootstrap sampling to construct 95% CIs. Models evaluated MCL with time indexed to the start of the MT (n = 963) and to the final menstrual period (n = 431). RESULTS: During the MT, increases in MCL occurred mostly at the right tail of the distribution, reflecting a lengthening of long menstrual cycles, not of the median MCL. After adjustment for smoking, education, physical activity, and time, Chinese and Japanese women had 1 day to 6 days longer MCLs compared with white women. Obese women had 1 day to 5 days longer MCLs compared with nonobese women. CONCLUSIONS: As occurs in younger women, menstrual characteristics during the MT are influenced by race/ethnicity and obesity. The long menstrual cycles characteristic of the MT are longer in obese women and in Chinese and Japanese women.

KW - Body mass index

KW - Chinese

KW - Japanese

KW - Menopause

KW - Menstrual cycle

KW - Race/ethnicity

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