Influence of container adsorption upon observed pyrethroid toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca

Craig E. Wheelock, Jeff L. Miller, Mike J. Miller, Bryn M. Phillips, Shirley J. Gee, Ronald S. Tjeerdema, Bruce D. Hammock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


Pyrethroid insecticides are known for their potential toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and many fish species. A significant problem in the study of pyrethroid toxicity is their extreme hydrophobicity. They can adsorb to test container surfaces and many studies, therefore, report pyrethroid levels as nominal water concentrations. In this study, pyrethroid adsorption to sampling and test containers was measured and several container treatments were examined for their ability to decrease pyrethroid adsorption. None of the chemical treatments were successful at preventing pyrethroid loss from aqueous samples, but vortexing of containers served to resuspend pyrethroids. The effects of the observed adsorption on Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca permethrin toxicity were examined. Species-specific results showed a time-dependent decrease in toxicity following pyrethroid adsorption to test containers for C. dubia, but not for H. azteca. These results demonstrate that pyrethroid adsorption to containers can significantly affect the observed outcome in toxicity-testing and serves as a caution for researchers and testing laboratories.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-52
Number of pages6
JournalAquatic Toxicology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 15 2005


  • Adsorption
  • Ceriodaphnia dubia
  • Hyalella azteca
  • Pyrethroid
  • Toxicity testing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science


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