Influence of chondrodystrophy and brachycephaly on geometry of the humerus in dogs

Emily J. Smith, Denis J Marcellin-Little, Ola L.A. Harrysson, Emily H. Griffith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective: To assess the geometry of canine humeri as seen on radiographs in chondrodystrophic dogs (CD) and brachycephalic dogs (BD) compared to non-chondrodystrophic dogs (NCD). Methods: Mediolateral (ML) and craniocaudal (CC) radiographs of skeletally mature humeri were used (CD [n = 5], BD [n = 9], NCD [n = 48]) to evaluate general dimensions (length, width, canal flare, cortical thickness), curvature (shaft, humeral head, and glenoid), and angulation (humeral head and condyle). Measurements from CD, BD, and NCD were compared. Results: Mean humeral length was shorter in CD (108 mm) compared to BD (184 mm, p = 0.001) and NCD (183 mm, p <0.001). Craniocaudal cortical thickness at 70% of humeral length and ML cortical thickness at 30%, 50%, and 70% of humeral length were less in CD compared to BD and NCD. Humeral shaft curvature was greater in CD (9.9°) compared to BD (6.7°, p = 0.023). The ratio of glenoid radius of curvature / humeral length was greater for CD (11.1%) compared to NCD (9.7%, p = 0.013). The ratio of humeral width / humeral length was greater for BD (29.4%) compared to NCD (26.2%, p = 0.043). The ratio of glenoid length / humeral length was greater in CD (18.0%) than BD (16.4%, p = 0.048) and NCD (15.6%, p <0.001). Clinical significance: Bone proportions and curvature in CD differ from BD and NCD. Differences are minor and unlikely to have clinical significance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)220-226
Number of pages7
JournalVeterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Anatomy
  • Dog
  • Humerus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Influence of chondrodystrophy and brachycephaly on geometry of the humerus in dogs'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this