Inflammation and nutritional science for programs/policies and interpretation of research evidence (INSPIRE)

Daniel J. Raiten, Fayrouz A. Sakr Ashour, A. Catharine Ross, Simin N. Meydani, Harry D. Dawson, Charles B. Stephensen, Bernard J. Brabin, Parminder S. Suchdev, Ben Van Ommen, Namanjeet Ahluwalia, Tahmeed Ahmed, Lindsay Allen, Melinda Beck, Helene Blanchard, Eleanor Brindle, Kenneth Brown, Philip Calder, William Checkley, Kate Claycombe, Christian ColesFabian Esamai, Henrik Friis, Elizabeth Gardner, Steve Grinspoon, Richard Guerrant, Marc Hellerstein, Janet Hunt, Janet King, Kirk Klasing, Bas Kramer, Kristine Koski, Christine Northrop-Clewes, Christine Pfeiffer, Andrew Prentice, Manuel Ramirez-Zea, Patrick Van Rheenan, Lothar Rink, Suman Srinivasa, Christine Stabell Benn, Charles Stephensen, Parminder Suchdev, Kevin Sullivan, David Thurnham, Ravi Varadhan, Andre Van Der Ven, Jeremy Walston, Jeff Xia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

137 Scopus citations


An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda-specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence regarding the impact of nutrition on immune function and inflammation; 3) evaluation of the impact of inflammation and clinical conditions (acute and chronic) on nutrition; 4) examination of existing and potential new approaches to account for the impact of inflammation on biomarker interpretation and use; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. EachWGwas tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1039S-1108S
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Assessment of micronutrient biomarkers
  • BOND and inflammation/infection
  • Immune function and nutrients
  • Inflammation and nutrition
  • Nutrition biomarkers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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