Infectome: A platform to trace infectious triggers of autoimmunity

Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, Daniel S. Smyk, Pietro Invernizzi, Eirini I. Rigopoulou, Miri Blank, Shideh Pouria, Yehuda Shoenfeld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

74 Scopus citations

Abstract

The "exposome" is a term recently used to describe all environmental factors, both exogenous and endogenous, which we are exposed to in a lifetime. It represents an important tool in the study of autoimmunity, complementing classical immunological research tools and cutting-edge genome wide association studies (GWAS). Recently, environmental wide association studies (EWAS) investigated the effect of environment in the development of diseases. Environmental triggers are largely subdivided into infectious and non-infectious agents. In this review, we introduce the concept of the "infectome", which is the part of the exposome referring to the collection of an individual's exposures to infectious agents. The infectome directly relates to geoepidemiological, serological and molecular evidence of the co-occurrence of several infectious agents associated with autoimmune diseases that may provide hints for the triggering factors responsible for the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. We discuss the implications that the investigation of the infectome may have for the understanding of microbial/host interactions in autoimmune diseases with long, pre-clinical phases. It may also contribute to the concept of the human body as a superorganism where the microbiome is part of the whole organism, as can be seen with mitochondria which existed as microbes prior to becoming organelles in eukaryotic cells of multicellular organisms over time. A similar argument can now be made in regard to normal intestinal flora, living in symbiosis within the host. We also provide practical examples as to how we can characterise and measure the totality of a disease-specific infectome, based on the experimental approaches employed from the "immunome" and "microbiome" projects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)726-740
Number of pages15
JournalAutoimmunity Reviews
Volume12
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Autoantibodies
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Autoimmunity
  • Environment
  • Immunity
  • Infection
  • Microbiome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy

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    Bogdanos, D. P., Smyk, D. S., Invernizzi, P., Rigopoulou, E. I., Blank, M., Pouria, S., & Shoenfeld, Y. (2013). Infectome: A platform to trace infectious triggers of autoimmunity. Autoimmunity Reviews, 12(7), 726-740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2012.12.005