Specific probes were obtained using PCR cloning from rat brain for the 78 kDa glucose regulated (grp78), inducible 72 kDa (hsp70) as well as constitutive 73 kDa (hsc73) heat shock mRNAs. Grp78 and hsc73 were expressed in normal rat brain whereas hsp70 was not. Subcutaneous injection kainic acid (10 mg/kg) produced seizures and induced all three mRNAs. The induction of grp78 and hsp70 mRNAs occurred within 2 h, peaked between 6-8 h, persisted for 48 h, and returned to control levels by 72 h. Expression of the grp78 and hsp70 mRNAs after focal ischemia progressively increased with occlusion durations from 15-120 min in the cerebral cortex. Though grp78 and hsp70 mRNAs were induced modestly in the striatum by 15 min of ischemia, longer durations of ischemia were characterized by little change in the grp78 mRNA levels and relatively lower levels of hsp70 expression. This result indicates that progressive increases in the duration of ischemia in brain, prior to infarction, may produce proportional increases in transcription of the heat shock genes. However, once the duration of ischemia is long enough to produce infarction, this severely limits the availability of ATP which blocks transcription of the heat shock genes. In conclusion, concurrent induction of the heat shock genes suggests that kainic acid seizures and focal ischemia induce several different stress responses in brain cells caused by denaturation of proteins, changes of protein synthesis, and changes of protein glycosylation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology
- Molecular Biology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience