HIV-1 incorporates a variety of host membrane proteins during budding. We have previously shown that adhesion molecules are acquired by the virus in their activated or functional states. Our studies and those of others indicate that adhesion molecules can have profound effects on virus infectivity and its resistance to neutralization by antiviral antibodies. In this study we have examined the effect on infectivity of immobilization or margination of HIV-1 through acquired integrins LFA-1 and VLA-4 onto nonsusceptible cells and solid-phase adhesion ligands (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, respectively). LFA-1- and VLA-4-mediated HIV-1 binding was supported by ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 immunoglobulin Fc chimeras, respectively. Integrin- mediated HIV-1 binding was also supported by 293 cells transfected with ICAM-1. In both cases the specificity of binding was confirmed with the appropriate blocking monoclonal antibodies or soluble adhesion ligands. We used a sensitive single-cycle infection assay based on a cell line expressing an LTR-luciferase cDNA construct to compare the infectivity of bound virus with that of free virus. Our results show that the binding of HIV-1 to nonsusceptible cells or immobilized adhesion ligands through acquired integrins can increase its infectivity by as much as two orders of magnitude. These results have implications for in vivo dissemination and transmission of HIV-1 and may also explain the high level of virus replication seen in solid lymphoid organs.
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