Incidence, Nature, and Etiology of Metabolic Alkalosis in Dogs and Cats

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The incidence and causes of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats have not been fully investigated. Objectives: To describe the incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats undergoing blood gas analysis at a veterinary teaching hospital. Animals: Dogs and cats at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Methods: Acid-base and electrolyte results for dogs and cats measured during a 13-month period were retrospectively collected from a computer database. Only the first measured (venous or arterial) blood gas analyzed in a single hospitalization period was included. Animals with a base excess above the reference range for the species were included. Results: A total of 1,805 dogs and cats were included. Of these, 349 (19%) were identified as having an increased standardized base excess, 319 dogs and 30 cats. The mixed acid-base disorder of metabolic alkalosis with respiratory acidosis was the most common abnormality identified in both dogs and cats. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more common in animals with metabolic alkalosis compared to animals without metabolic alkalosis. The 4 most commonly identified underlying diseases were respiratory disease, gastrointestinal tract obstruction, furosemide administration, and renal disease. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Metabolic alkalosis was less common than metabolic acidosis in the same population of animals. Evidence of contraction alkalosis was present in many patients in this study. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more frequent in patients with metabolic alkalosis and suggest the importance of evaluation of acid-base status in conjunction with serum electrolyte concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)847-853
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume27
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2013

Fingerprint

Alkalosis
etiology
Cats
Dogs
cats
incidence
dogs
Incidence
hypokalemia
Hypokalemia
blood gases
acidosis
animals
Teaching Hospitals
Electrolytes
electrolytes
Acids
acids
Respiratory Acidosis
Animal Hospitals

Keywords

  • Base excess
  • Bicarbonate
  • Hypochloremia
  • Hypokalemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Incidence, Nature, and Etiology of Metabolic Alkalosis in Dogs and Cats. / Ha, Y. S.; Hopper, Katrina; Epstein, Steven E.

In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 4, 07.2013, p. 847-853.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{ee675d7733924613837881c1c78f6734,
title = "Incidence, Nature, and Etiology of Metabolic Alkalosis in Dogs and Cats",
abstract = "Background: The incidence and causes of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats have not been fully investigated. Objectives: To describe the incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats undergoing blood gas analysis at a veterinary teaching hospital. Animals: Dogs and cats at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Methods: Acid-base and electrolyte results for dogs and cats measured during a 13-month period were retrospectively collected from a computer database. Only the first measured (venous or arterial) blood gas analyzed in a single hospitalization period was included. Animals with a base excess above the reference range for the species were included. Results: A total of 1,805 dogs and cats were included. Of these, 349 (19{\%}) were identified as having an increased standardized base excess, 319 dogs and 30 cats. The mixed acid-base disorder of metabolic alkalosis with respiratory acidosis was the most common abnormality identified in both dogs and cats. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more common in animals with metabolic alkalosis compared to animals without metabolic alkalosis. The 4 most commonly identified underlying diseases were respiratory disease, gastrointestinal tract obstruction, furosemide administration, and renal disease. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Metabolic alkalosis was less common than metabolic acidosis in the same population of animals. Evidence of contraction alkalosis was present in many patients in this study. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more frequent in patients with metabolic alkalosis and suggest the importance of evaluation of acid-base status in conjunction with serum electrolyte concentrations.",
keywords = "Base excess, Bicarbonate, Hypochloremia, Hypokalemia",
author = "Ha, {Y. S.} and Katrina Hopper and Epstein, {Steven E}",
year = "2013",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1111/jvim.12122",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "27",
pages = "847--853",
journal = "Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine",
issn = "0891-6640",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Incidence, Nature, and Etiology of Metabolic Alkalosis in Dogs and Cats

AU - Ha, Y. S.

AU - Hopper, Katrina

AU - Epstein, Steven E

PY - 2013/7

Y1 - 2013/7

N2 - Background: The incidence and causes of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats have not been fully investigated. Objectives: To describe the incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats undergoing blood gas analysis at a veterinary teaching hospital. Animals: Dogs and cats at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Methods: Acid-base and electrolyte results for dogs and cats measured during a 13-month period were retrospectively collected from a computer database. Only the first measured (venous or arterial) blood gas analyzed in a single hospitalization period was included. Animals with a base excess above the reference range for the species were included. Results: A total of 1,805 dogs and cats were included. Of these, 349 (19%) were identified as having an increased standardized base excess, 319 dogs and 30 cats. The mixed acid-base disorder of metabolic alkalosis with respiratory acidosis was the most common abnormality identified in both dogs and cats. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more common in animals with metabolic alkalosis compared to animals without metabolic alkalosis. The 4 most commonly identified underlying diseases were respiratory disease, gastrointestinal tract obstruction, furosemide administration, and renal disease. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Metabolic alkalosis was less common than metabolic acidosis in the same population of animals. Evidence of contraction alkalosis was present in many patients in this study. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more frequent in patients with metabolic alkalosis and suggest the importance of evaluation of acid-base status in conjunction with serum electrolyte concentrations.

AB - Background: The incidence and causes of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats have not been fully investigated. Objectives: To describe the incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats undergoing blood gas analysis at a veterinary teaching hospital. Animals: Dogs and cats at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Methods: Acid-base and electrolyte results for dogs and cats measured during a 13-month period were retrospectively collected from a computer database. Only the first measured (venous or arterial) blood gas analyzed in a single hospitalization period was included. Animals with a base excess above the reference range for the species were included. Results: A total of 1,805 dogs and cats were included. Of these, 349 (19%) were identified as having an increased standardized base excess, 319 dogs and 30 cats. The mixed acid-base disorder of metabolic alkalosis with respiratory acidosis was the most common abnormality identified in both dogs and cats. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more common in animals with metabolic alkalosis compared to animals without metabolic alkalosis. The 4 most commonly identified underlying diseases were respiratory disease, gastrointestinal tract obstruction, furosemide administration, and renal disease. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Metabolic alkalosis was less common than metabolic acidosis in the same population of animals. Evidence of contraction alkalosis was present in many patients in this study. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more frequent in patients with metabolic alkalosis and suggest the importance of evaluation of acid-base status in conjunction with serum electrolyte concentrations.

KW - Base excess

KW - Bicarbonate

KW - Hypochloremia

KW - Hypokalemia

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84880511225&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84880511225&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/jvim.12122

DO - 10.1111/jvim.12122

M3 - Article

VL - 27

SP - 847

EP - 853

JO - Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

JF - Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

SN - 0891-6640

IS - 4

ER -